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CANSTATT — CANTON

in the battles around Metz, and became a prisoner of war on the surrender of that fortress. In 1872 he was appointed a member of the Supreme Council of War. He was elected Senator for Lot in 1876, and for Charente in 1879, and again in 1885. He died at Paris on 28th January 1895, and his remains received a public funeral. (E- H- v-) Canstatt, or Cannstatt, a town and wateringplace of Wurtemberg, on the Neckar, 2| miles by rail N.E. from Stuttgart. It was connected in 1891-93 with Berg, a suburb of Stuttgart, by a bridge 990 feet long. It has railway workshops, iron-foundries, and machine shops, and manufactures of fire-engines, zinc goods, electrotechnical apparatus, motor-cars, cottons, &c.; fruit and wine are cultivated. The poet Freiligrath was buried here. Population (1885), 18,031; (1895), 22,590; (1900), 26,449. Cantal, a department in the middle of the central plateau of France, watered by the tributaries of the Lot, the Dordogne, and the Allier. Area, 2230 square miles, distributed among 23 cantons and 267 communes. From 241,742 in 1886 the population declined to 218,941 in 1901. In 1899 there were 4978 births, of which 277 were illegitimate, against 4644 deaths ; marriages numbered 1672. The chief towns are Aurillac (the capital), Mauriac, Murat, St Flour, and Salers. In 1896 there were 782 schools, with 41,000 pupils, and 3 per cent, of the population was illiterate. The area under cultivation in 1896 comprised 1,161,437 acres, of which 452,218 acres were laid out in grass, employed for the rearing of a great many cattle. Rye takes the first rank among the cereals, yielding in 1899 a value of £400,000. The green crop lands yield only a minimal return, but the natural grass lands, in which Cantal ranks first among the French departments, produced in 1899 a value of £1,025,000. There is abundance of chestnuts. The live stock in 1899 included 222,790 cattle, 42,220 pigs, 369,000 sheep, and 15,500 goats. The mining comprises but a few coal-pits, turning out 99,000 metric tons in 1898, and except for the coppersmith work of St Flour there is no metallurgic industry to speak of. Canterbury, a city, county borough, and parliamentary borough—since 1885 returning one member only —of England, on the Stour, 62 miles E.S.E. of London by rail. The Elham Valley railway now connects Canterbury with Folkestone. Parish churches, other than the cathedral, number fourteen. Recent erections are the Simon Langton schools, endowed with funds of an old Blue Coat school, the Sidney Cooper Art Gallery, an institute containing library and museum, a Masonic temple, and a memorial (1891) of Christopher Marlowe, who was born here; there are also a Wesleyan college, the Clergy Orphan School, and a school of art under the town council. Linen-weaving, rope-making, and tanning are among the industries. Area of county borough, 3971 acres; population (1881), 21,848; (1901), 24,868. Many improvements have been made in the cathedral. The crypt, probably the finest in England, has been cleared of the lumber formerly deposited in it; the earth placed there in the 16th century, on account of the inflow of water, has all been removed, and the bases of the Norman columns exposed to view; a good floor has been laid down, and the whole crypt provided with gas brackets, so that it can be used for various purposes. The chapel of the Holy Innocents has been fitted up and is occasionally used as a place of worship. The French church, which for many years occupied a large portion of the south side of the crypt, has been removed to the Black Prince s chantry, and is now far more convenient for the use of the alien congregation. A judicious use of gold ornament and an elaborate reredos have added materially to the beauty of the cathedral. The chapel of St Anselm has also been restored, and is now used for early morning service as

well as for other services. The chapter-house, formerly in a ruinous condition, has been thoroughly restored. The roof has been entirely renovated, and the ceiling again appears in all its original beauty. The windows have all been reglazed, and the east window filled with stained glass at a cost of £1000, contributed by the Freemasons of England. The interior of the walls has been redecorated, and the arcade, which extends round the whole building, has been tastefully ornamented. The old pavement has been replaced by a new one of a uniform pattern, and arrangements for warming this splendid room and making it suitable for public meetings have been completed. The old palace, at the north-western part of the cathedral, last occupied by Archbishop Parker, who there entertained Queen Elizabeth, of which only a part remained, has after many changes been rebuilt, and is now the country residence of the archbishop of Canterbury. The field lying to the east of St Augustine’s College, and known as the Abbey Field, has recently been acquired by trustees. In this field are the ruins of the Chapel of St Pancras, which was probably built by St Augustine. It also* contains the eastern portion of the Abbey Church of St Peter and St Paul, in which St Augustine and many of his successors were buried. There are also remains of the chapter-house, dormitory, and infirmary, and the site of the chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary built by Eadbald, Ethelbert’s son and successor. The excavations which have been commenced have laid bare many matters of interest. The ruins of the chapel of St Pancras have been uncovered, and the abbey chapter-house has been traced in part. Of the abbey church the eastern apse is now exposed to view with its central and side apsidal chapels. The central chapel contains some interesting frescoes on the walls, and in the middle are the remains of an altar highly decorated. In the north apsidal chapel there is an altar almost perfect, in front of which were found the remains of an abbot, which had been enclosed in a wooden coffin. The ambulatory at the eastern end of the crypt has also been uncovered. To the east of the main church is an oblong chapel, in which was found the body of John Dygon, abbot, who died in 1509. On the head was a large leaden painted mitre, and in the grave were found a coffin plate, a leaden chalice and paten, and two finger rings. Exploration is in progress which will, it is hoped, yield much valuable information. (f. w. f.) Canton, city and treaty port in southern China, capital of the province of Kwangtung, on the left bank of the river Canton, some 70 miles from its mouth. The city has continued to make good progress as one of the principal markets of China. The trade, which in 1874 was H.taels 26,139,000 (£7,841,000), amounted in 1899 to H.taels 58,641,000 (£8,769,000). The silver valuation represents more accurately the volume of trade. Besides the above, which comprises the trade carried in foreign bottoms, there is a large traffic in native craft of which no statistics are kept. There is daily communication by steamer with Hongkong, and with the Portuguese colony of Macao which lies near the mouth of the river. Inland communication by steam is now open by the West river route to the cities of Wuchow and Nanning. The opening of these inland towns to foreign trade, which has been effected, cannot but add considerably to the volume of Canton traffic. The native population is variously estimated at from 1,500,000 to 2,000,000, the former being probably nearer the truth. The foreign residents number about 400. Canton is the headquarters of the provincial government of Kwangtung and Kwangsi, generally termed the two Kwang, at the head of which is a governor-general or viceroy, an office which next to that of Nanking is the