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CANTON — CAPE COLONY 563 most important in the empire. It possesses a mint built region. In 1890 the manufacturing capital was $5,621,960, in 1889 by the then viceroy Chang Chih-tung, and equipped and the output was valued at $7,986,627. Of this, about with a very complete plant supplied from England. It one-fifth consisted of agricultural implements. In 1900 turns out silver subsidiary coinage and copper cash. Con- the assessed valuation of real and personal property was tracts have been entered into to connect Canton by railway $11,033,380; the net debt was $924,719, and the with Hong-Kong (Kowloon), and by a grand trunk line with total tax rate $30 per $1000. Population (1880), Hankow on the Yangtse. It is connected by telegraph 12,258; (1890), 26,189; (1900), 30,667 (4018 foreignwith all parts. born and 135 negroes). Canton was the home of President Canton, a city of Fulton county, Illinois, U.S.A., McKinley. on the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy, and the Toledo, Cantu, a town of the province of Como, Lombardy, Peoria, and Western railways, at an altitude of 651 feet. It has extensive manufactures of agricultural implements. Italy, 8 miles by rail S. by E. from Como. It is a seat of Population (1880), 3762; (1890), 5604; (1900), 6564 (424 considerable industry, chiefly carried on in the inhabitants’ own houses. Silks, laces, veils, and nails are the principal foreign-born, and 38 negroes). articles made. There are also furniture factories and a Canton, capital of Stark county, Ohio, U.S.A., technical school. Population, about 5500. situated in 40° 48' N. lat. and 81° 23' W. long., in the eastern part of the state, at an altitude of 1031 feet. It CapannOfi, a town of the province of Lucca, is at the intersection of three railways, the Pennsylvania, Tuscany, Italy, 3 miles E. from Lucca. It carries on the Cleveland Terminal and Valley, and the Wheeling and silk, thread, and paper industries. Population, about Lake Erie. The surrounding country is a rich agricultural 44,000. CAPE

COLONY.

Geography and Statistics. CAPE COLONY, or officially, The Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, is a British colony in the extreme south of Africa. During the last twenty-five years of the 19th century, the boundaries of the colony underwent many modifications. In 1876, though various parts of independent Kaffraria1 had already been brought under the control of the Cape Government, no part of the territories now known as Transkei, Tembuland, Griqualand East, and Pondoland had been actually incorporated in the colony. It was not, indeed, till 1879 that two large areas of Transkei, Fingoland and the Idutywa reserve, together with the district commonly known as Noman’sland, which was taken to comprise most of the territory belonging to modern Griqualand East, were formally proclaimed an integral part of the Cape. About this time most of the rest of KafFraria came under British control, but it was 1885 before Galekaland, the coast region of Transkei, and the various districts composing Tembuland — Bomvanaland on the coast, Tembuland Proper, and Emigrant Tembuland, were annexed to the colony. By this annexation, the frontier of the colony was carried right up to the Umtata river, beyond which it has been already stated that Griqualand East, stretching to Natal, was within the frontier line, so that by 1885 only Pondoland, fronting on the Indian Ocean, separated the Cape from Natal. In Pondoland, Port St John’s, after being for some years connected with the colony, had been incorporated along with the lower reaches of the St John’s river in 1884 ; in 1886 the Xesibe Country (Mount Ayliff) was annexed to the Cape, and added to Griqualand East; and in the following year the Bhode Valley was included within the boundary line. The rest of Pondoland, chiefly in virtue of a British protectorate established over all the coast region in 1885, was already more or less under British control, and in 1894 it was annexed to the Cape in its entirety. Thus by 1894 the whole of Kaffraria had been incorporated, and in 1901 the extreme north-eastern frontier of the Cape was conterminous all along the line with that of Natal. Looking to the west of Kaffraria, Basutoland, which became part of Cape Colony in 1871, has since 1 Though not officially recognized, we shall retain the term Kaffraria, which is convenient for designation.

1884 been constituted a Crown colony. Farther west still, the intimate connexion between Cape Colony and Griqualand West resulted in the incorporation of the latter in 1880, and fifteen years later the adjacent Crown colony of British Bechuanaland, lying between the Orange and Molopo rivers, and extending west as far as the 20th meridian, was brought within the Cape boundaries. On the other hand, Great Namaqualand, stretching west to the Atlantic, has been taken over by Germany, with the exception of a small district around Walfisch Bay, which, proclaimed British territory in 1878, was incorporated in 1884. Area and Population.—The following table shows concisely the growth of the colony, giving the extent and population of the actual colony in 1875 ; in 1891, when Transkei, Tembuland, Griqualand East, Griqualand West, and Walfisch Bay had been incorporated, and Basutoland had been disannexed ; and in 1900, when Pondoland and British Bechuanaland had been added. 1815.

1891.

Area.

Population.

201,136

849,160

1900. Pop. (estimated).

Population. 260,918

1,598,773

277,077

2,349,908

The census of 1891 was the only one taken between 1875 and 1901. Since 1875 the limits of most of the divisions of the colony have been altered so entirely that it is impossible to make any comparison between the population returns of 1901 and those of 1891 and 1875. With regard to the 1875 census, however, it should be noted that the revised returns differed slightly from those given in the ninth edition of this work, placing the population of the colony proper at 720,984, and that of Basutoland at 128,176, thus making the total for the whole colony 849,160, as given above. The incorporation of the various native territories in the east has considerably increased the average density of population in the colony. Thus, in 1891 the average density of population within the old limits of the colony (but excluding Basutoland) was 5-00 per square mile ; that of Griqualand West was only 5 ’49 per square mile, while that of Walfisch Bay was merely 1'79 ; but the density of Griqualand East being 20‘10, that of Tembuland 43‘77, and that of Transkei 60-16, the density of the whole colony in 1891 was brought up to If Pondoland (46'53 per square mile) and British Bechuanaland (1 '41 per square mile) be taken into account, it is found that the density of the colony, as at present constituted, was 6'45 in 1891. Of the 1,527,224 inhabitants within the limits of the colony in 1891, 376,987, or about a quarter, were European or white (some 230,000 of Dutch and