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582

CAPUA—CARBORUNDUM

generate back E.M.F.; on this being effected tbe automatic switch which the ruins are still to be seen. Population (1895), must be replaced and remain in place so long as the current keeps 11,000; (1900), 12,025. below the maximum for which it is adjusted. The speed of the motor is 380 revolutions per minute, and with this speed the lift Caracas, capital city of Venezuela and of the is 15 tons, at the rate of 25 feet per minute. federal district, situated in 67° 4' 45" W. long, and 10“ All capstans for H.M. ships are tested for lifting power 30' N. lat., 23 miles S.S.E. of La Guaira, its port, by rail; and speed; with foremast capstans the anchor is usually 3018 feet above sea-level. The city, including the six outlying parishes, forms the federal district, which has an area of 45 square miles and a population of about 100,000. There are two telephone companies and two banking institutions—the bank of Venezuela, with a capital of 8,000,000 bolivars and a reserve of 974,753‘39 bolivars, and the bank of Caracas, a joint-stock company with a capital of 6,000,000 bolivars and a reserve fund of 345,928 bolivars. Four railway lines start from Caracas. The line to Port La Guaira is a bold undertaking because of the height of Mount Avila and the sinuosities of the land over which it travels; but the longest line goes to Valencia and Puerto Cabello, crossing the high cordilleras surrounding Caracas, and dropping into the valleys of Aragua. Caracas is the residence of the archbishop of Venezuela, the dioceses suffragan to it being those of Ciudad Bolivar, Calabozo, Barquisimeto, Merida, and Maracaibo. The city is lighted by both gas and electricity. Population, 72,429. Caraman, or Karaman (Laranda, a name still used by the Christians), a town in the Konia vilayet of Asia Minor, situated on the plain north of Mount Taurus. The modern name is derived from Karaman, to whom it was granted by Sultan Ala ed-Din of Rum. It has few industries and little trade, but the mediaeval walls and the mosques are interesting, and the old Seljuk medresse, or college, is one of the most beautiful buildings in Asia Minor. Population, 5000 (Moslems, 4500; Christians, 500). Ca.ra.ma.nia., or Karamania, formerly an independent province in the south of Asia Minor, named after Karaman, the son of an Armenian convert to Islam, who married a daughter of the Seljuk sultan of Riim, and was granted Laranda (Karaman), and made governor of Selefke, 1223-45. On the collapse of the Seljuk empire, Karaman’s grandson, Mahmud, 1279-1319, founded a state, with its capital at Konia, which included Pamphylia, Lycaonia, and large parts of Cilicia, Cappadocia, and Phrygia. The state was frequently at war with the kings of Lesser Armenia, generally fitted with warping ends for working ropes; in the Lusignan princes of Cyprus, and the knights of Rhodes. case of failure of steam, hand-power with “wee-gee” It was also engaged in a long struggle for supremacy with motion is employed, but where a warping capstan is fitted the Osmanli Turks, which only ended in 1472, when it it is worked with capstan bars. Capstans on dock walls was annexed by Muhammad II. The Osmanlis divided in H.M. dockyards are usually driven by hydraulic or air Karamania into Kharij, north, and Ichili, south of the pressure conveyed through pipes to small engines under- Taurus. The name is now often given by geographers neath the capstans. (j. w. d.) to Ichili only. Carapequa, an important town of Paraguay, Capua, a fortified garrison town and archiepiscopal see of the province of Caserta, Campania, Italy, on the founded in 1725. The adjacent country cultivates cotton, river Yolturno, 7 miles KW. from Caserta by rail. The tobacco, corn, sugar-cane, and mandioca. It has two cathedral, dating originally from the 11th century, has schools, a church, many modern edifices and business been entirely modernized. The other buildings embrace houses, a post-office, and a sub-department of the Agriculthe Campanian Museum (archaeological, 1874), and a tower tural Bank. Population, 13,000. and mortuary chapel, commemorative of the slaughter of Carbon dal 6, a city of Lackawanna county, Pennthe inhabitants when the town was captured by Cesare sylvania, U.S.A., situated in 41° 34' N. lat. and 75 30 Borgia in 1501. The fortifications were planned by W. long., on Lackawanna river, a branch of the SusqueYauban, and extended in 1855. The manufacture of fire- hanna, in the north-eastern part of the state, at an altitude works is a speciality. Bricks are also made. Population, of 1080 feet. It is a coal-mining town, being situated about 14,500. in the midst of the anthracite coal region of the United States. It is served by three railways, the Delaware and Caracal, a town in Rumania, chief town of the Hudson, the Lehigh Valley, and the Delaware, Lackawanna district of Romanati. It is a seat of a court of first and Western. Population (1880), 7714 ; (1890), 10,833; instance, and has eleven churches and a school of arts and (1900), 13,536. crafts. The town derives its name from the Emperor Carborundum. See Electro-Metallurgy. Caracalla, who, in the year 217, built a tower there, of