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steamboat traffic. There is also a harbour, dug out of the mud to the west of the channel, for mooring the pilot boats, and ample accommodation opposite (on east side) for the large fleet of tug boats. The Windsor Dock Company, furthermore, are seeking powers to construct a dock on the west side of Cardiff, at a cost of ,£825,000. The mechanical erections at the Bute Docks include 50 coal staiths, hydraulic lifts, and cranes for loading; 57 cranes for discharging; 1 shear legs; 10 graving docks; 1 gridiron; 2 pontoons, and 2 pontoon docks. Eleven of the cranes are “ Lewis-Hunter ” patent coal cranes, lifting up to 30 tons; and, loading simultaneously as many hatches as a vessel may have, will in 24 hours stow as much as 7000 tons and load vessels carrying 10,000 tons. Large warehouses and transit sheds have been erected at the West, East, and Roath Docks for housing grain, provisions, &c. One flour-mill cost £80,000. One warehouse will hold 75,000 quarters of grain. There is also extensive wharf accommodation for heavy goods such as timber and iron ore, cold storage for dead meat, and lairs for live cattle. The capital invested in these docks, including Penarth and Barry Docks, is estimated at 8 to 9 millions. The industries of Cardiff include iron-founding; iron, steel, and copper works; flour - mills ; biscuit factory; shipbuilding; tin enamel, chemical, waggon and printing works; sail-making, wire and hemp roperies, coachbuilding, &c. The Dowlais blast-furnaces employ about 300 men, and the steel works in full swing, 3000 men —the iron and steel works covering 82 acres. One milling firm has the capacity to supply all the flour needed by a population of 600,000. Registered shipping in 1888, 290 vessels of 151,972 tons; in 1898, 285 of 204,018 tons; in 1899, 270 of 212,058 tons. Entered in 1888, 12,973 vessels of 5,767,616 tonnage; in 1898, 12,136 of 6,378,189 tonnage; in 1899, 11,824 of 8,837,234 tonnage. Cleared in 1888, 13,274 vessels of 6,083,762 tonnage; in 1898, 12,179 of 6,737,821 tonnage; in 1899, 11,845 of 9,003,275 tonnage. Imports of foreign and colonial merchandise in 1888 amounted to the value of £2,165,961 ; in 1898, £2,612,327; in 1899, £3,352,191. Exports of the produce of the United Kingdom in 1888 were valued at £4,873,106; in 1898, £5,521,350; in 1899, £8,662,147. Of the total imports in 1899, valued at £3,352,191, the most important articles were wheat, valued at £812,523 ; iron ore, £589,094; wood of all sorts, £1,112,289. Of the exports in 1899, valued at £8,662,147, coal, coke, cinders, and patent fuel alone amounted to £8,308,533. The import of timber in 1845 was 6965 loads; in 1855, 31,829 loads; in 1865, 103,170 loads; in 1885, 373,398 loads; in 1895, 689,871 loads. The iron-ore trade, first coastwise and then oversea, has increased thirteen times over since 1850. Cardiff publishes 4 daily, 1 biweekly, and 2 weekly newspapers, and has 15 banks. Area of municipal borough, 8408 acres; population (1881), 82,761 ; (1891), 128,915; (1901), 164,315. Area of parliamentary borough, comprising the contributory boroughs of Cardiff, Cowbridge, and Llantrisaint, 12,247 acres; population (1881), 85,862; (1891), 132,229; (1901), 180,000. It has been observed that from 1841 to 1891 the population increased, roundly speaking, 10,000 for every additional million tons of coal shipped. Moreover, if to the population of the municipal borough be added that of Penarth and Barry, the total population is 205,675 (1901).

Wales, 274 miles W. by X. of London by rail, on the Teifi, 5 miles from its mouth. Since 1885 the parliamentary representation of the borough has been merged in that of the county. The old endowed grammar-school has been united with an intermediate school. In 1898 the registered shipping was 29 vessels of 1135 tons; in 1898, 415 vessels of 18,274 tons entered, and 393 of 17,401 tons cleared. Area, 4926 acres; population (1881), 3669 ; (1901), 3511. There is a parish of Cardigan.

Cardigan, a municipal borough, seaport, and county town of Cardigan, extending into Pembrokeshire,

The following table gives particulars regarding the principal re stock during the same years :—

Cardigan, a maritime county of South Wales, bounded on the N. by Merioneth, on the E. by Montgomery, Radnor, and Brecon, on the S. by Carmarthen and Pembroke, and on the W. by Cardigan Bay. Area and Population.—The area of the ancient county is 440,630 acres, or 688 square miles. The population in 1881 was 70,270, and in 1891 was 62,630, of whom 27,365 were males and 35,265 females, the number of persons per square mile being 91, and of acres to a person 7'04. In 1901 the population was 60,237. The area of the administrative county is 443,071 acres, with a population in 1891 of 63,467. The area of the registration county is 595,285 acres, with a population in 1891 of 86,383. Within its area there was, between 1881 and 1891, a decrease in the population of 9 "20 per cent. The excess of births over deaths between 1881 and 1891 was 6971, but the decrease in the resident population was 8754. The following table gives the numbers of marriages, births, and deaths, with the number and percentage of illegitimate births, for 1880, 1890, and 1899 :— Year. 1880 1890 1899

543 502 506



2625 2078 1964

1882 1641 1604

Illegitimate Births. Percentage. No. 8-4 220 8-2 171 141 6-1

In 1891 the number of Scots in the county was 128, of Irish 98, and of foreigners 46 ; while 3979 could speak English, 61,624 Welsh, and 1711 English and Welsh. Constitution and Government.—The county returns one member to Parliament, and it has no parliamentary borough. _ There are three municipal boroughs, Aberystwith (8013), Cardigan (3511), and Lampeter (1722). The urban districts are Aberayron (1327) and New Quay (1234). The county is in the south-western circuit, and the assizes are held at Lampeter; the boroughs of Aberystwith and Cardigan have separate commissionse of the peace, but no separate court of quarter sessions. Tb - ancient county contains 66 entire ecclesiastical parishes and districts, and part of one other. It is entirely in the diocese of St. Davids. Education.—Kt Aberystwith is a university college, in connexion with which there is a day training college for schoolmasters and mistresses. The number of elementary schools in the county on 31st August 1899 was 107, of which 75 were board and 32 voluntary schools, the latter including 27 National Church of England schools, and 5 “British and other.” The average attendance at board schools was 5989, and at voluntary schools 2264. The total school board receipts for the year ending 29th September 1899 were over £19,129. The income under the Agricultural Rates Act was over £1905. Agriculture.—About three-fifths of the total area of the county is under cultivation, and of this more than five-ninths is in permanent pasture. There are also, in addition, about 129,000 acres in hill pasture and about 16,000 acres under woods. Within the last twenty years the acreage under corn crops has decreased., by about one-seventh. Wheat has only slightly decreased in acreage, and occupies about one-eighth of the corn acreage, barley occupying considerably more than one-fourth and oats considerably more than one-half. Potatoes occupy a rather larger acreage than turnips. The following table gives the larger mam divisions of the cultivated area at intervals of five years from 1880 Total Area Year. under Cultivation. 1880 276,236 1885 281,478 1890 283,932 1895 269,746 1900 272,493

Com Crops.

Green Crops.

61,833 13,123 58,792 13,671 56,214 13,866 52,981 12,812 49,447 13,257

Clover. Permanent Pasture. Fallow. 44,023 44,854 47,270 42,238 51,995

155,179 162,951 164,827 160,858 156,905

2078 1210 1740 823 853