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CARDUOCI — CAREY 585 cated act consolidating all existing shipping laws, but or Heifers Total Cows Total Pigs. Sheep. in Milk or m 1855 resigned, with his Peelite colleagues, upon the Year. Horses. Cattle. in Calf. appointment of Mr Roebuck’s Sebastopol inquiry com213,343 18,979 25,747 1880 13,873 62,917 mittee, declining the offer of the chancellorship of the 211,462 22,218 27,010 1885 13,991 67,299 Exchequer pressed upon him by Lord Palmerston. In 221,652 25,489 26,811 1890 14,714 65,500 1858 he moved the famous resolution condemnatory of 25,565 221,533 24,308 1895 16,053 65,336 Lord Ellenborough’s despatch to Lord Canning on the 274,955 22,897 26,967 1900 17,573 72,229 affairs of Oude, which for a time seemed certain to Industries and Trade.—According to the annual report of the overthrow the Derby Government, but which ultimately inspector of factories for 1898 (1900), the number of persons engaged in all factories and workshops in 1897 was 1359, as com- dissolved into nothing. He obtained a seat in Lord pared with 1357 in 1896. The total number of persons employed Palmerston’s Cabinet of 1859, and after filling the in mines and quarries in 1899 was 682. Copper-mining is now uncongenial posts of secretary for Ireland and chancellor almost extinct. The output of lead is also declining, 2072 tons, of the duchy of Lancaster (1861), became secretary valued at £18,143, being dug in 1885, and 598 tons, valued at £5823, in 1899. Of zinc 3273 tons, valued at £8760, were obtained for the colonies in 1864. Here he reformed the system in 1885, and 3328 tons, valued at £14,585, in 1898, but in 1899 of colonial defence, refusing to keep troops in the colonies only 1819 tons, valued at £10,303, were got. Clay and sandstone during time of peace unless their expense was defrayed by are also raised. The total quantity of fish landed at New Quay the colonists; he also laid the foundation of federation (Cardigan), Aberayron, and Aberystwith in 1899 was 2875 cwts., in Canada and, rightly or wrongly, censured Sir George valued at £2921. Grey’s conduct in New Zealand. Resigning with his Authorities.—Sir R. Meyrick. History and Antiquities of the County of Cardigan. London, 1810.—J. G. Williams. A friends in 1866, he again took office in 1868 as secretary Short Account of the British Encampments lying between the Rivers for war. In this post he performed the most memorable Rheidol and Llyfnant in the County of Cardigan in their connexion actions of his life by the abolition of purchase and the with the Mines. Aberystwith, 1866.—J. R. Phillips. List of the institution of short service, measures which excited more Sheriffs of Cardiganshire from A.D. 1539 to A.D. 1868. See also opposition than any of the numerous reforms effected by the various Guides to South Wales. (x. F. H.) the Gladstone Government of that period, but which were Carducci, Giosue (1836 ■), Italian poet, entirely justified by their successful working afterwards. was born at Val-di-Castello in Tuscany, 27th July 1836. On the resignation of the Gladstone ministry in 1874 His father was a physician, and Carducci received a good he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Cardwell of education. He began life as a public teacher, but soon Ellerbeck, but took no further prominent part in politics. took to giving private lessons at Florence, where he became His mental faculties, indeed, were considerably impaired connected with a set of young men, enthusiastic patriots during the last few years of his life, and he died at He was not a in politics, and in literature bent on overthrowing the Torquay on 15th February 1886. reigning romantic taste by a return to classical models. showy, hardly even a prominent politician, but effected These aspirations have always constituted the mainsprings far more than many more conspicuous men. The great of Carducci’s poetry. In 1860 he became professor at administrator and the bold innovator were united in Bologna, where, after in 1865 astonishing the public by him in an exceptional degree, and he allowed neither (r. g.) a defiant Hymn to Satan, he published in 1867 Levia character to preponderate unduly. Gravia, a volume of lyrics which not only gave him an Cardwell, a town of Queensland, Australia, 950 indisputable position at the head of contemporary Italian miles N.W. of Brisbane, on Rockingham Bay, in the poets, but made him the head of a school of which the county of Cardwell. It has one of the finest harbours in best Italian men of letters have been disciples, and which the colony, easy of access in all weathers. Various minerals, has influenced all. Several other volumes succeeded, the including gold, exist in the district. The dugong fishery most important of which were the Decennalia (1870), the is carried on and the oil extracted. Population, about Nuove Poesie (1873), and the three series of the Odi 3500. Barbare (1877-89). The employment of the antique Carey, Henry Charles (1793-1879), metrical forms in these has occasioned fierce literary controversies, hardly yet allayed. It is not likely that Car- American political economist, was born in Philadelphia ducci’s example will be largely imitated, for the excellent 15th December 1793, and at the age of twenty-eight reason that it is incapable of imitation except by a consum- succeeded his father, Mathew Carey—an influential mate metrist, but its indirect inculcation of a robust and economist, political reformer, editor, and publisher, of manly style has been of the highest value. Rallied to Irish birth, but between 1783 and his death in 1839 a the Savoy dynasty, Carducci enjoys the dignity of a resident of Philadelphia—as a member of the publishing senator of the Italian kingdom, and occupies a position of firm of Carey and Lea, which was long the most conspicuous in America. Among Mathew Carey’s many authority as citizen as well as writer. writings had been a collection (1822) of Essays on Political Cardwell, Edward Cardwell, Viscount Economy, one of the earliest of American treatises favouring (1813-1886), English statesman, was the son of a merchant Protection, and Henry C. Carey’s life-work was devoted to of Liverpool, where he was born on 24th July 1813. After the propagation of the same theory. He retired from a brilliant career at Oxford, where he gained a double first- business in 1838, almost simultaneously with the appearclass, he entered Parliament as member for Clitheroe in ance (1837-40) of his Principles of Political Economy. 1842, and in 1845 was made secretary to the Treasury. He This treatise, which was translated into Italian and supported Sir Robert Peel’s free-trade policy, and went out Swedish, soon became the standard representative in the of office with him. In 1847 he was elected for Liverpool, United States of the school of economic thought which, but lost his seat in 1852 for having supported the repeal with some interruptions, has dominated the tariff system of of the navigation laws. He soon found another constitu- that country for the past half-century; and it exercised a ency at Oxford, and upon the formation of Lord Aberdeen’s manifest influence upon the writings of such later Proteccoalition ministry in 1853 became president of the Board tionists as Bowen, Greeley, and Thompson. To Carey’s of Trade, although debarred by the jealousy of his Whig arguments, more than to those of any other writer, was colleagues from a seat in the Cabinet. In 1854 he carried, due the freedom with which his followers, in economic almost without opposition, a most important and compli- literature and in legislative action, were led to consider the S. II. — 74