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A stimulus to genuine art in caricature was given by illustrator of versatility and importance is distinguished the establishment of the well-groomed society weekly, Life, by its anatomic knowledge, or, rather, anatomic imaginaedited by J. A. Mitchell, a clever draughtsman as well as tion. Violent as the action of his figures frequently is, it an original writer. It is to this weekly that America is always convincing. Such triumphs as the tragedy of owes the discovery and encouragement of its most the kind-hearted man and the ungrateful bull-calf ; the remarkable penman, Charles Dana Gibson, whose tech- spinster’s cat that ate rat-poison by mistake and went nique has developed through many interesting phases mad; the discomfiture of the two deserters with the from an exceeding delicacy to a sculpturesque boldness clothes-basket; and many others, force the most serious of line without losing its rich texture or becoming to laughter by their amazing velocity of action and their monotonous. Mr Gibson is chiefly beloved by his public unctuousness of expression; but they fasten on the memory, for his almost idolatrous realizations of the beautiful and for years the mere thought of them brings back the American woman of various types, ages, and environments. old-time merriment. Frost is to American caricature His works are, however, full of the most subtle character- what “ Artemus Ward ” has been to American humour. observations, and American men of all walks of life, and Frost’s field of publication has been chiefly the monthly foreigners of every type, impart as much importance and magazine. The influence of the weekly periodicals has been briefly humour to his pages as his “ Gibson girls ” give radiance. traced. A more recent development has been the entrance His resemblance to Du Maurier, in reverence, for. the beautiful woman beautifully attired, has led some critics of the omnivorous daily newspaper into the field of both to set him down as a mere disciple, while his powerful the magazine and the weekly. For' many years almost individuality has led other critics to accuse him of monotony; every newspaper has printed its daily cartoon, generally but a serious examination of his work is held by others to of a political nature. Few of the cartoonists have been show that he has gone beyond the genius of Du Maurier able to keep up the pace of a daily inspiration, though Mr in sophistication, if not in variety of subjects and treat- C. G. Bush has been unusually successful in the attempt. But ment, while it would be hard to find another artist who an occasional success atones in the public mind for many has so studiously tried new experiments in the new fields slips, and the cartoonists are known and eagerly watched. opened by modernized processes of photo-engraving. He The most influential has doubtless been Homer C. Davenhas been an important influence in both English and port, whose slender artistic resources have been eked out by a vigour and mercilessness of assault rare even in American line-illustration. Among other students of society, particular success has American annals. He has a Rabelaisian complacency and been granted to C. S. Reinhart (1844-1896), Charles skill in making a portrait magnificently repulsive, and Howard Johnson (died 1895), H. W. McVickar, S. W. van his caricatures are a vivid example of the school of Schaick, A. E. Sterner, W. H. Hyde, W. T. Smedley, and cartoonists who believe in slashing rather than merely A. B. Wenzell, each of them strongly individual in manner prodding or tickling the object of attack. Charles G. Nelan frequently scores, and throughout the wide and often full of verve and truth. extent of the United States one finds keen wits busily Life, and other comic papers, including for many years Truth, also brought forward caricaturists of distinct assailing the manifold evils of life. Noteworthy among worth and a marked tendency to specialization. F. E. them are: Thos. E. Powers, H. R. Heaton, A. L. Atwood (died 1900) was ingenious in cartoons lightly alle- Levering, Clare Angell, and R. C. Swayne. Many of gorical ; Oliver Herford has shown a fascination elusive of the daily papers publish a weekly comic supplement; analysis in his drawings as in his verse; T. S. Sullivant some even devote a page every day to humour. The has made a quaintly intellectual application of the world- quality of most of this is inevitably low, yet enlarged old devices of large heads, small bodies, and general artistic opportunities usually evoke increased achieveupsetting of the rule of three; Peter Newell has developed ment, and entice many a brilliant mind that would individuality both in treatment and humour; E. W. otherwise have sought some other outlet. Among the Kemble stands well to the front among the exploiters of increasing crowd of American caricaturists there are negro life; and H. B. Eddy, Augustus Dirk, Robert already enough important figures to justify a reasonable (R- Hu-) Wagner, A. Anderson, F. Sarka, and T. Swinnerton have confidence in the future. all found manners and moods quite their own. Carimata (Dutch, Karimata), a group of islands In distinction from the earlier period, the present school in the East Indian Archipelago, west of Borneo and beof American caricature is strongly national, not only in tween 1° IF and 1° 46’ S. lat., and 108 40 and 109 28 subject, but in origin, training, and in mental attitude, E. long. Great Carimata, on which is the village exception being made of a few notable figures such as (kampong) of Palembang, rises in its highest point to Michael Angelo Woolf, born in England, and of a some- 2620 feet. The industries are fisheries, forest products, what Cruikshankian technique. He came to America and iron-mining. Population, about 500. while young, and contributed a long series of what may Carinthia (German, Kdrnten), a duchy and crownbe called slum-fantasies, rich in a spirit often equivocal with laughter and sorrow, at times strangely combining land of the Cisleithan part of the Austro-Hungarian extravagant melodrama with a most plausible and monarchy. Population (1880), 348,130 ; (1890), 361,008, convincing impossibility. His drawings must always lie equivalent to 90T2 inhabitants per square mile. Provery close to the affections of the large audience that portion of females to males, 1046 to 1000 : 71'6 per cent, welcomed them. American also by adoption is Henry were German, and 28‘4 Slovenes; the latter mostl) Mayer, a German by birth, who has contributed to many settled in the districts adjoining the Slovene province of the’ chief comic papers of France, England, Germany, of Carniola. 94‘8 per cent, were Roman Catholic, the and America. His work is as full of variety as it is rest Protestant. Population in 1900, 367,344. In cosmopolitan, and its exuberant spontaneity finds skill 1896 the marriage-rate was 5-65; the birth-rate, 32'8b, or, excluding still-births, 31-78; and the _ death-rate, ready for every flight of whim. Entirely native in every way is the art of A. B. Frost 26-38. Of the births, 43-34 per cent, were illegitimate, (born 1851), who is prominent in the fields of pure a declining ratio. Carinthia has the largest proper humour as comment on real or apparently real life among tion in Austria of illegitimacy and of cretins. The the common people. His caricature for he is also an crownland returns ten members to the Reichsrath. n