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C A R L E T O N 591 PLACE — CARLOS the Diet there are thirty-four Germans and three Slovenes. of a Genoese colony founded here in 1737 by Charles Education is decidedly backward, although an improve- Emmanuel of Savoy. It carries on tunny fishing and the ment is now visible, the number of illiterates in 1890, preparation of salt, and exports these products, as well 29'6 per cent., showing an improvement of 10 per cent, as zinc and lead from mines on the main island. The on the census of 1880. In 1895 there were four gymnasia, coral fishing came to an end in 1898, owing to exhaustion a theological seminary, seven technical institutions (in- of the banks. Population, about 7000. cluding three agricultural academies and a school of mining), and. 374 elementary schools. Less than 14 per Carlos (Charles Maria de los Dolores Juan cent, of the soil is arable, and the crops are insufficient Isidore Joseph Francis Quirin Antony Michael for the requirements of the population. Cattle-breeding Gabriel Raphael) (1848 ), prince of Bourbon, is of greater importance, and all descriptions of live stock known as Don Carlos, was born at Laibach on 30th March show an increase, with the exception of sheep. The mines 1848, being the eldest surviving son of Don Juan of Bour(lead—the most important in the monarchy—iron, lignite, bon and of the archduchess Maria Beatrix, daughter of zinc), and the industries dependent upon them, are the Francis IV., duke of Modena. Don Carlos, who styles himchief resources of the population. Other trades are the self duke of Madrid, and is sometimes called Charles VII. by manufacture of leather, paper, cloth, and cement, brewing, his partisans, is the fourth pretender who has disputed the distilling, &c. In 1897 the value of the minerals was rights of the reigning branch of the Spanish Bourbons. He £150,996, and of the furnace products £185,100. But is the grandson of the first pretender, also a Don Carlos and the manufacture of lead, steel, and iron wares, including Infante of Spain, brother of Ferdinand VII., who waged rails and railway material, agricultural implements, and war from 1833 to 1840 against Queen Isabella II., the small-arms, is of greater importance. In 1897 Carinthia daughter and heiress of that king. The first pretender’s had 447 kilometres of railway, 1754 kilometres of roads, eldest son, the count of Montemolin, was taken prisoner and 393 kilometres of waterway, of which two-thirds was by the troops of Queen Isabella, and had to abdicate and only available for floating timber. renounce his rights in order to regain his liberty, whereAelschker’s Qeschichte Karntens (Klagenfurt, 1885); and his upon his younger brother, Don Juan, claimed to be the Heimatslcunde von K. (Klagenfurt, 1886) ; Krones, Die alte representative of the rights of the first Don Carlos. Don Geschichte Karntens von der Urzcit bis Kaiser Karl dcm Grossen (Klagenfurt, 1893); and von Radios, Kdrnten, Kultur- und Juan himself abdicated in favour of his son, Don Carlos, in 1868, when the latter was only twenty. The present lleisebilder (Vienna, 1882). ^ ^ pretender married in February 1867, at Frohsdorf, Princess Carleton Place, a town and port of entry of Marguerite, daughter of the duke of Parma and niece of Lanark county, Ontario, Canada, situated 30 miles the comte de Chambord, who was born on 1st January S.W. of Ottawa, on the Mississippi river, and at the 1847, and who bore him a son, Don Jaime, in 1870, and junction of the main line and Brockville branch of the three daughters. Don Carlos boldly asserted his pretenCanadian Pacific railway. It has abundant water-power sions to the throne of Spain two years after the revolution privileges, and contains extensive railway-repair shops and of 1868 had driven Queen Isabella II. and the other woollen mills. Population (1881), 1975 ; (1891), 4435 • branch of the Bourbons into exile. His manifesto, (1901), 4059. ' ' addressed to his brother Alfonso, namesake of his rival, Carlisle, a city, municipal borough (extended 1887), Alfonso XII., found an echo in the fanatical priesthood parliamentary borough (since 1885 returning only one and peasantry of many provinces of the Peninsula, but member), and county town of Cumberland, England, on little support among the more enlightened middle classes, the Eden, 300 miles N.N.W. of London by rail, and especially in the towns. The first rising was started in 301 by road. Eight lines of railway converge on Carlisle, Catalonia by the brother of the pretender, who himself making it a very important railway junction. Recent entered Spain by way of Vera, in the Basque provinces, constructions are the Victoria railway viaduct, public on 21st May 1872. The troops of King Amadeus under baths, the city hall, the market, large public slaughter- General Moriones, a progressist officer, who was one of houses, and the museum, art gallery, library, &c. The Spain’s ablest and most popular commanders, surprised Cumberland Infirmary and the home for incurables have and very nearly captured the pretender at Oroquista, been extended, and large works for locomotives, carriages, sending him a fugitive to France in headlong flight with and waggons established. The gas-works and the electric- a few followers. For more than a year he loitered about light works are vested in the corporation, whilst the in the French Pyrenees, the guest of old noble houses who electric tramways (the property of a company) are worked showed him much sympathy, while the French authorities with electric energy supplied by the corporation. Ex- winked at the fact that he was fomenting civil war in tended area of municipal borough, 2025 acres; population Spain, where his guerilla bands, many of them led by (1881), 36,585; (1891), 39,176; (1901), 45,478. Area priests, committed atrocities, burning, pillaging, shooting of parliamentary borough, 1570 acres; population (1881), prisoners of war, and not unfrequently ill-using even 36,585; (1901), 43,687. foreign residents and destroying their property. When Carlisle, a borough of Pennsylvania, U.S.A., and the Federal Republic was proclaimed on the abdication of capital of Cumberland county, situated in Cumberland King Amadeus, the Carlists had overrun Spain to such Valley, south of the Blue Ridge, in the southern part of an extent that they held all the interior of Navarre, the the state, at the intersection of the Cumberland Valley three Basque provinces, and a great part of Catalonia, railway with a branch of the Philadelphia and Reading, Lower Aragon, and Valencia, and had made raids into the at an altitude of 473 feet. It is the seat of Dickinson provinces of Old Castile and Estremadura. Don Carlos College for boys and Metzger Institute for girls, and of a re-entered Spain on 15th July 1873, just before the training school for Indians, of whom about 1000, both Carlists took Estella, in Navarre, which became, with boys and girls, are usually in attendance. Population Tolosa and Durango in the Basque provinces, his favourite residence. He displayed very lax morals and an apathy (1880), 6209; (1890), 7620; (1900), 9626. which displeased his staff and partisans. Don Carlos was Carlofbrte, a town of Italy, Sardinia, province of present at some fights around Estella, and was in the Cagliari, situated on the E. side of the island of San neighbourhood of Bilbao during its famous siege of three Pietro, off the S.W. coast of Sardinia. It has grown out months in 1874 until its relief by Marshals Serrano and