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Concha on 2nd May. He was also present at the battle he entered the Russian army, in which he holds the rank near Estella on 27th June 1874, in which Marshal Concha of a colonel of dragoons. was killed and the Liberals were repulsed with loss. CarlOS I. (1863 ), king of Portugal, the third Twice he lost golden opportunities of making a rush for sovereign of Portugal of the line of Braganza.Coburg, the capital—in 1873, during the Federal Republic, and was the son of King Luiz I. and Mana Pia, daughter after Concha’s death. From the moment that his cousin of King Vittorio Emmanuele of Italy, being born ^bth Alfonso XII. was proclaimed king at Sagunto, at Valencia, September 1863. When about twenty years of age in Madrid, and at Logroiio, by General Campos, Daban, he spent a considerable time in travelling. He visited Jovellar, Primo de Rivera, and Laserna, the star of the England in 1883. On 22nd May 1886 he married Mane pretender was on the wane. Only once, a few weeks after Amelie daughter of Philippe, due d’Orleans, comte de the Alphonsist restoration, the army of Don Carlos checked Paris and on the death of his father, 19th October 1889, the Liberal forces in Navarre, and surprised and made succeeded to the throne of Portugal. In that year the prisoners half a brigade, with guns and colours, at Lacar, British Government found it necessary to make formal almost under the eyes of the new king and his headquarters. remonstrances against Portuguese encroachments in South This was the last Carlist success. The tide of war set Africa, and relations between the two countries were in favour of Alfonso XII., whose armies swept the Carlist greatly strained for some time. The king’s attitude bands out of Central Spain and Catalonia in 1875, while during this critical period was one of conciliation, and his Marshal Quesada, in the upper Ebro valley, Navarre, and temperate, though firm, speech on opening the Cortes in Ulava, prepared by a series of successful operations the January 1890 did much to strengthen the party of peace. final advance of 180,000 men, headed by Quesada and In 1900-1 also his friendly attitude towards Great Britain the king, which defeated the Carlists at Estella, Pena was shown by cordial toasts at a banquet to the officers of Plata, and Elgueta, thus forcing Don Carlos with a few the British fleet at Lisbon. The king has been a great thousand faithful Carlists to retreat and surrender to the patron of science and literature; in March 1894 he took French frontier authorities in March 1876. a very active part in the celebration of the 500th anniThe pretender went to Pau, and there, singularly versary of the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator, and a enough, issued his proclamations bidding temporary adieu year later he decorated the Portuguese poet Joao de Deus to the nation and to his volunteers from the same chateau with much honour at Lisbon. He has taken a gieat where Queen Isabella, also a refugee, had issued hers in personal interest in deep-sea soundings and marine explora1868. From that date Don Carlos became an exile and a tion, and has published an account of some of his own wanderer, travelling much in the Old and New World, and investigations, the results themselves being shown at an raising some scandal by his mode of life. He fixed his oceanographic exhibition opened by him on 12th April residence for a time in England, then in Paris, from which 1897. he was expelled at the request of the Madrid Government, Carlow, an inland county of Ireland, province of and next in Austria, before he took up his abode at Viarreggio in Italy. Like all pretenders, he never gave Leinster. Population.—The area of the judicial county in 1900 was in, and his pretensions, haughtily reasserted, often troubled 458 acres, of which 71,486 were tillage, 122,649 pasture, 114 the courts and countries whose hospitality he enjoyed. 221 fallow, 3240 plantation, 688 turf bog, 2367 marsh, 10,647 barren His great disappointment was the coldness towards him of mountain, and 10,267 water, roads, fences, &c. T ie new adminisPope Leo XIII., and the favour shown by that Pontiff for trative county, under the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898 Alfonso XII. and his godson, Alfonso XIII. Don Carlos includes the portion of the town of Carlow formerly situated Queen’s County. Population (1881), 46,568 ; (1891), 41,964 ; had two splendid chances of testing the power of his party in (1901) 37 723, of whom 18,991 were males and 18,732 females, in Spain, but failed to profit by them. The first was being a decrease of 10'1 per cent., divided as follows among the when he was invited to unfurl his flag on the death of different religions:—Roman Catholics, 33,381; Protestant EpisAlfonso XII., when the perplexities and uncertainties of copalians, 3950; Presbyterians, 156 ; Methodists, 198 ; others, The decrease of population between 1881 and 1891 was 12 1 Castilian politics reached a climax during the first year of 38. per cent. The average number of persons to an acre was ' 19. Ut a long minority under a foreign queen-regent. The second the total population 35,345 persons inhabited the rural districts, was at the close of the war with the United States and being an average of 119 to each square mile under crops and after the loss of the colonies, when the discontent was so pasture. The following table gives the degree of education m widespread that the Carlists were able to assure their 1891 :— Percentage. prince that many Spaniards looked upon his cause as the Males. Females. Total. R. C. Pr. Epis. Presb, one untried solution of the national difficulties. Don Carlos showed his usual lack of decision; he wavered 94-0 89-4 71-5 27,354 and write . 13,840 13,514 1-0 5-2 12'4 between the advice of those who told him to unfurl his Read 2,341 4,279 Read only . . 1,938 50 5-4 16-1 5,538 2,709 standard with a view to rally all the discontented and dis- Illiterate . . • 2,829 appointed, and of those who recommended him to wait In 1881 the percentage of illiterates among Roman Catholics until a gve&t pronunciamiento, chiefly military, should be was 21-4 In 1891 there were 6 superior schools, with 396 pupils made in his favour—a day-dream founded upon the (344 Roman Catholics and 52 Protestants), and 83 primary schools, coquetting of General Weyler and other officers with the with 5791 pupils (5092 Roman Catholics and 699 Protestants). number of pupils on the rolls of the national schools on 30tli Carlist Senators and Deputies in Madrid. Afterwards The September 1899 was 6275, of whom 5530 were Roman Catholics the pretender continued to ask his partisans to go on and 745 Protestants. , „,. j organizing their forces for action some day, and to push The following table gives the number of births, deaths, and their propaganda and preparations, which was easy enough marriages in various years Marriages. Deaths. in view of the indulgence shown them by all the governBirths. Y ear. ments of the regency and the open favour exhibited by 177 754 ”937 7881 140 772 many of the priesthood, especially in the rural districts, the 817 1891 145 698 847 religious orders, and the Jesuits, swarming all over the 1899 kingdom. After the death of his first wife in 1893, Don Carlos married in the following year Princess Marie Bertha In 1899 the birth-rate per 1000 was 20 2, and the deat 16-6 ; the rate of illegitimacy was 4'3 per cent, of the tota birth^ of Rohan. His son by his first wife, Don Ja^e, was The total number of emigrants who left the county between educated in Austrian and British military schools before