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CARLSBAD May 1851 and 31st December 1899 was 32,009, of whom 16,425 were males and 15,584 females. The following are the chief towns in the county, with their populations in 1891 :—Carlow, 6619 ; Bagenalstown, 1920 ; Tullow, 1773. Administration.—The county returns 1 member to Parliament, the number of registered electors in 1900 being 8132. The rateable value in 1900 was £169,401. By the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898, the fiscal and administrative duties of the grand jury and (to a less extent) of other bodies were transferred to a county council, urban and rural district councils were established, and under that Act the county now comprises 1 urban and 3 rural sanitary districts. Agriculture.—The following tables show the acreage under crops (including meadow and clover), and the amount of live stock, in 1881, 1891, 1895, and 1900. The figures for 1900 are for the new administrative county :—



Carlsham n, a seaport town of Sweden, on the S. coast, 28 miles by rail W. from Carlscrona. It has a school of navigation, and an export trade in timber, spirits, and fish. The industries embrace distilleries, tanneries, tobacco factories, &c. Population (1880), 6402; (1898),

Carlsruhe, a town of Germany, capital of grandduchy of Baden, 33 miles by rail S. by W. of Heidelberg, and 5 miles. E. of the Rhine. The fan-like form of the plan of the city, already described in the article in the ninth edition, has been rigidly adhered to in the new suburbs. The city as a whole makes the impression of uniformity and elegance. Amongst the new buildings probably the most noteworthy are the joint museum of the grandOther Meadow Pota- Tur- Green Wheat. Oats. Barley, ducal and national collections (natural history, archseoand Total. etc. toes. nips. Crops. Clover. lo gy> ethnology, art, and a library of over 150,000 1881 3409 20,209 5404 9856 4972 1830 31,275 76,955 volumes); the palace of the heir-apparent, a late Renais1891 1483 20,174 5157 9532 5192 2130 31,045 74,713 1895 120 21,902 4958 8515 5759 1952 33,501 76,707 sance building of 1891-96; the imperial bank (1893); 1900 405 19,428 5499 7918 5656 2046 30,534 71,486 the national industrial hall, with an exhibition of For 1899 the total value of cereal and other crops was estimated machinery, &c.; and the new law courts. The hall of by the Registrar-General at £515,840. The number of acres under fine arts, which shelters a good picture gallery, was Carlsruhe possesses further the pasture in 1881 was 116,694; in 1891, 116,175 ; and in 1900, enlarged in 1896. 122,649. Zahringer museum of curiosities, &c., in the left wing of the castle, an architectural school (1891), industrial art Horses and Asses. Cattle. Sheep. Pigs. Goats. Poultry. school and museum, cadet school (1892), botanical and Mules. electro-technical institutes, industrial art school, art school, trades and commercial schools, and horticultural and 1881 8649 2556 44,519 60,078 21,411 3380 176,909 1891 9039 2763 46,311 89,123 24,611 198,728 agricultural schools. Of its recent public monuments 1895 9493 2876 43,787 79,696 22,560 3937 3387 204,526 1900 8867 may be mentioned one to Von Scheffel (1892), who 3358 47,314 97,845 22,436 3044 225,168 was born here in 1826, and died here in 1886; a The number of milch cows in 1891 was 12,070, and in 1900 bronze equestrian statue of the Emperor William I. 11,674. It is estimated that the total value of cattle, sheep, and pigs in 1900 was £827,223. In 1900 the number of holdings not (1896); and a memorial of the 1870-71 war. Carlsexceeding 1 acre was 1576 ; between 1 and 5, 625 ; between 5 and ruhe is the headquarters of the 14th German army 15, 817 ; between 15 and 30, 994 ; between 30 and 50, 834 ; be- corps. Since 1870 the industry of the town has tween 50 and 100, 840 ; between 100 and 200, 349 ; between 200 grown rapidly, as well as the town itself. Here are and 500, 108 ; and above 500, 7—total, 6150. The number of loans issued (the number of tenants being the same as the number large railway workshops. The principal branches of of loans) under the Land Purchase Acts 1885, 1891, and 1896, up industry are concerned with the making of locomotives, to 31st March 1900, was 155, amounting to £129,570. The number vehicles, implements and machinery, silvered wares, art of loans sanctioned for agricultural improvements under sect. 31 furniture, gloves, cement, carpets, perfumery, and beer. of the Land Act, 1881, between 1882 and 1900, was 114, and the amount issued was £10,541. The total amount issued on loan There is an important arms factory. Maxau, on the for all classes of works under the Land Improvement Acts, from Rhine, serves as the river port of Carlsruhe, and is conthe commencement of operations in 1847 to 31st March 1900, was nected with it by a canal finished in 1901. Population £109,969. H> Po^ (1885), 61,066; (1895), 84,030; (1900), 96,876. Carlstad, a town of Sweden, capital of province of Carlsbad, or Kaiser-Karlsbad (Czech, Karlovy Vary), a royal free town and celebrated watering-place in Vermland, stands at the H. end of Lake Wener, 205 miles Bohemia. The population in 1890 was 12,033; in 1900 W. from Stockholm by rail to Christiania. There are (estimated), 14,640, all German and chiefly Catholic (about ironworks and match factories, and a mineral spring. 9 per cent. Jewish and 2 per cent. Protestant). In 1896 Population (1880), 7772; (1898), 10,015. the total number of visitors rose to 42,448. There has Carluke, a burgh of barony of central Lanarkshire, been a corresponding increase in the accommodation, the Scotland, 194- miles S.E. of Glasgow by rail. Fruit is houses having been increased by 114 in the period largely grown in the district, and a preserve factory and 1887-96, 33 of these being public buildings. Carlsbad engineering works are among the industrial features. has an important porcelain and stoneware industry, cutlery, Original Secession and Congregational chapels have been confectionery, &c. erected. Population (1881), 3867 ; (1901), 4731. The There is an extensive literature on the curative properties of the parish contains four villages, the largest, Law, an important waters, comprising works by Mannl {Carlsbad and its Mineral railway junction. Population (1901), 8962. Springs, Leipzig, 1850), Hochstetter, Sender, Hertzka, Fleckles, Carlyle, Thomas (1795 -1881), British essayist, Kraus, Sorger, Kafka, Hlawacek, Cartellieri, Stephanides, and historian, and philosopher, born on 4th December 1795 Sipbcz. • at .Ecclefechan, in Annandale, was the eldest of the nine Carlscrona, the chief naval station of Sweden, on children of James Carlyle by his second wife, Janet the S. coast, 53 miles S.S.W. from Calmar by rail (line Aitken. The father was by trade a mason, and afteropened in 1899). A bronze statue of Charles XL, the wards a small farmer. He had joined a sect of seceders founder of the town, was unveiled in 1897. There are from the Kirk, and had all the characteristics of the factories for naval equipments, canvas, leather, and rice, typical Scottish Calvinist. He was respected for his and granite quarries. About 550 vessels of 110,000 integrity and independence, and a stern outside covered tons clear the port annually. Principal exports—granite warm affections. The family tie between all the and timber. Imports—coal, cereals and flour, groceries, Carlyles was unusually strong, and Thomas regarded his hides, machinery, etc. Population (1880), 18,300 : (1898V father with a reverence which found forcible expression h 23,507. in his Reminiscences. He always showed the tenderest S. II.-75