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of moderate size. At the date of the last return, 1895, there were 3333 holdings in the county of an average size of 97 acres ; 9-93 did not exceed 5 acres ; 27’IS were between 5 and 50, and 62-95 were above 50 acres. Farms between 50 and 100 acres numbered 763 ; between 100 and 300, 1240; between 300 and 500, 83 ; and above 500, 13. According to the census of 1891 there were 9201 men and 1672 women engaged in pursuits connected with agriculture. Industries and Trade.—Ayrshire is the principal mining county in Scotland, and has the second largest coalfield. The following table gives particulars of the mineral industry :— Pig Iron, Fire Clay. Coal. Tons. Tons. Value. Tons. Value. 1890 3,159,727 £1,105,904 446,246 £245,435 240,848 87,175 £18,888 1899 3,809,313 £1,412,020 354,333 £177,160 345,488 113,127 £18,022


In 1890 there were 21 blast furnaces ; in 1899, 26 on an average. Of sandstone, 120,268 tons, valued at £31,341, were obtained in 1895, and 151,955, valued at £47,481, in 1899. Of limestone 21,228 tons were raised in 1895, and 14,369 tons in 1899. Industries have spread throughout the towns generally. There are now large lace curtain factories at Galston, Newmilns, and Darvel; shoemaking is engaged in on an extensive scale at Maybole, and also at Ayr, Kilmaurs, and Kilmarnock ; cabinetmaking at Beith, shipbuilding at Troon, Ayr, Irvine, and Fairlie ; while calico-printing, bleaching, silk-weaving, bonnetmaking, tanning, and freestone-quarrying are all carried on. The seaports are Girvan, Ayr, Troon, Irvine, Saltcoats, Ardrossan, and Largs. Fishing is carried on from twelve harbours or creeks, which are divided between the two fishery districts of Ballantrae and Greenock, and statistics for the two districts conjointly may most conveniently be given here. Year. 1890 1898 1899

Boats in Districts. No. Tons. Value. 757 2403 ; £15,770 787 1698 ! £29,768 744 1852 I £15,097

Value of Gear. £13,244 £13,862 £12,810

Resident Value Fishermen Total and Boys. of all Fish. 1333 1429 1304

£44,138 £37,138 £38,493

£13,010 of the total value of fish in 1899 was the value of shell-fish only. The number of persons connected with the various branches of the sea fisheries in 1899 in the two districts was 5956. To Ayrshire harbours alone there belonged in 1899, 322 boats of 877 tons; there were 474 fishermen and boys resident in the county, and the value of the fish landed was £14,500. At the census of 1891 the number of persons engaged in industrial pursuits was 47,252 men and 14,011 women, of whom 2269 men were concerned in the production of machines and implements, 4136 men and 6056 women of textiles, and 18,992 men of minerals. Commerce occupied 7875 men and 326 women. A large number of short railway lines have been built since 1875 by the Caledonian and Glasgow and South-Western Railway Companies, the total new mileage being about 60 miles, and there are about 35 miles under construction by the Glasgow and SouthWestern Railway Company. Authorities.—James Paterson. “ History of the County of Ayr” {Transactions of Ayrshire and Galloway Archaeological Association). Edinburgh, 1879-1900.—John Smith. Prehistoric Man in Ayrshire. London, 1895.—William Robertson. History of Ayrshire. Edinburgh, 1894.—Historical Tales and Legends of Ayrshire. Ayr, 1890.—Robert Bryden. Etchings of Auld Ayr and some Ayr Characters. 1898.—Roderick Lawson. The Capital of Carrick. Paisley, 1897.—David Caldwell. History of the Parish of Ayr. Ayr, 1896.—John Warrick. The History of Old Cumnock. Paisley, 1897.—William Baird. Sixty Years of Church Life in Ayr. Ayr, 1898.—Archibald Sturrock. “On the Agriculture of Ayrshire” {Transactions of Highland and Agricultural Society).—Archibald Mackay. History of Kilmarnock. Kilmarnock. — D. Landsborough. Contributions to Local History. Kilmarnock, 1878.—MTlwraith. History of the Glasgow and South- JFestern Pailway. Glasgow, 1880 (w. Wa.) Ayub Khan, Afghan prince, son of Sher Ali, formerly Amir of Afghanistan, and cousin of the Amir Abdurrahman, was born about 1855. During his father’s reign little is recorded of him, but after Sher Ali’s expulsion from Kabul by the English, and his death in January 1879, Ayub took possession of Herat, and


maintained himself there until June' 1881, when he invaded Afghanistan with the view of asserting his claims to the sovereignty, and in particular of gaining possession of Kandahar, still in the occupation of the British. He encountered the British force commanded by General Burrows at Mai wand, on 27 th July, and was able to gain one of the very few pitched battles that have been won by Asiatic leaders over an army under European direction. His triumph, however, was short-lived ; while he hesitated to assault Kandahar he was attacked by Sir Frederick (afterwards Lord) Roberts, at the close of the latter’s memorable march from Kabul, and utterly discomfited, 20th September 1880. He made his way back to Herat, where he remained for some time unmolested. In the summer of 1881 he again invaded Afghanistan, and on the anniversary of the battle of Maiwand obtained a signal victory over Abdurrahman’s lieutenants, mainly through the defection of a Durani regiment. Kandahar fell into his hands, but Abdurrahman now took the field in person, totally defeated Ayub, and expelled him from Herat. He took refuge in Persia, and for some time lived quietly in receipt of an allowance from the Persian Government. In 1887 internal troubles in Afghanistan tempted him to make another endeavour to seize the throne. Defeated and driven into exile, he wandered for some time about Persia, and in November gave himself up to the British agent at Meshed. He was sent to India to live as a state prisoner. Azamgarh or Azimgarh, a town and district of British India, in the Gorakhpur division of the NorthWest Provinces. The town is situated on the river Tons, and has a railway station. The population is 19,000; the municipal income in 1897-98 was Rs.13,107; the registered death-rate in 1897 was 39 per thousand. There are two printing-presses. The district of Azamgarh has an area of 2148 square miles. In 1891 its population was 1,728,625, being 805 persons per square mile. In 1901 it was 1,530,555, showing a decrease of 11 per cent. The land revenue and rates were Rs. 17,48,488, the incidence of assessment per acre being R. 1 :0:7 on the temporarily settled land, and Rs.O : 0 : 4 on the permanently settled; the cultivated area in 1896-97 was 593,067 acres, of which 417,932 were irrigated from wells, Ac.; the number of police was 2845; there are 160 vernacular schools with 5724 pupils; the registered death-rate in 1897 was 38‘7 per thousand. There are 364 indigo factories, with an out-turn valued at Rs.4,65,000. A branch of the Bengal and North-Western Railway to Azamgarh town was opened in 1898. AzerbcUjcLn (Azerbij&n, Azerb&deg&n of mediaeval writers, Athropatakiin and Atropatene of the ancients), the north-western and most important province of Persia, with an estimated area of 32,000 square miles and a population of about two millions. It is divided into a number of administrative sub-provinces and districts, each with a hakim, governor, or zdbit, sub-governor, under the governor-general, who, under the present dynasty— that of the KajArs—has been the heir-apparent to the throne of Persia, assisted by a responsible minister appointed by the Shah. The administrative divisions of the province are as follows : Tabriz and environs, Uskiih, Deh Khdregfin, Manigha, Miando/ib, Saujbulagh, Sulduz, Urmia, Selmas, Khoi, Maku, Gerger, Merend (Mehrand in ninth edition), Karadagh, Arvanek, Talish, Ardebil, Mishkin, Khalkhal, Hashtnid, Garmrud, AfshAr, Sain Kaleh, Ujdn, Sarrib (Siral in ninth edition). The revenue of the province derived from land taxation and other maliat is said to amount to about £200,000 per annum in cash and kind, and nearly all of it is expended in the province for the maintenance of the court of the heir-