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CARMARTHEN —CARMARTHENSHIRE 599 wives have had Mrs Carlyle’s, capacity for expressing the and rope-making are carried on. Population (1881), sense of injustice. The knowledge that the deepest devo- 10,514; (1901), 9935. There is a parish of Carmarthen. tion underlies misunderstandings is often a very imperfect consolation ; but such devotion clearly existed all through, Carmarthensh i re, a maritime county of South Wales, bounded on the N. by Cardigan, on the E. by and proves the defect to have been relatively superficial. The harsh judgments of individuals in the Reminis- Brecon and Glamorgan, on the S. by Carmarthen Bay, and cences had no parallel in his own writings. He scarcely on the W. by Pembroke. . Area and Population.—The area of the ancient and the adever mentions a contemporary, and was never involved in a personal controversy. But the harshness certainly reflects ministrative county, as given in the census returns, is 587,816 a characteristic attitude of mind. Carlyle was throughout acres, or 918 square miles. The population in 1881 was 124,864, Was a pessimist or a prophet denouncing a backsliding world. ns U , 1^0,566, of whom 62,316 were males and -mo iemales

the number of persons per square mile being

His most popular contemporaries seemed to him to be 0 CreS t0 a erson 4 5 ' 0- In 1901 theispopulation was mn,5Z5. ^ The area ofPthe registration county 478,717 acres, false guides, and charlatans had ousted the heroes. The iQKQOK with a population in 1891 of 118,624. Within this area the pergeneral condemnation of “shams” and cant had, of course, of increase between 1881 and 1891 was 6-62. Between particular applications, though he left them to be inferred centage 1881 and 1891 the excess of births over deaths was 15,234, and by his readers. Carlyle was the exponent of many of the the increase in the resident population was 7369. The following deepest convictions of his time. Nobody could be more table gives the numbers of marriages, births, and deaths, with the number and percentage of illegitimate births, for 1880, 1890, in sympathy with aspirations for a spiritual religion and 1898:— > , > and for a lofty idealism in political and social life. To Year. Marriages. Births. Deaths. Illegitimate Births. most minds, however, which cherish such aspirations the gentler optimism of men like Emerson was more con1880 767 3702 2338 190 5-1 genial. They believed in the progress of the race and the 1890 767 3647 2143 156 4-3 triumph of the nobler elements. Though Carlyle, especially 1898 861 3540 2328 130 37 in his earlier years, could deliver an invigorating and In 1891 the natives of Scotland in the county numbered the encouraging, if not a sanguine doctrine, his utterances natives of Ireland 343, and foreigners 191 ; while 1751 232 persons were more generally couched in the key of denunciation, could speak English, 63,345 Welsh, and 36,937 English and Welsh. and betrayed a growing despondency. Materialism and Constitution and Government.—The county is divided into two low moral principles seemed to him to be gaining the parliamentary divisions, and it also includes the Carmarthen of parliamentary boroughs, consisting of Carmarthen and upper hand • and the hope that religion might survive the district Llanelly. There are three municipal boroughs: Carmarthen “ old clothes ” in which it had been draped seemed to grow (9935), Kidwelly (2285), and Llandovery (1809). The urban disfainter. The ordinary mind complained that he had no tricts are Llandilo (1934), Llanelly (25,553), and Newcastle Emlyn specific remedy to propose for the growing evils of the (855). The county is in the South Wales circuit, and assizes are held at Carmarthen. The borough of Carmarthen has a commission time; and the more cultivated idealist was alienated by of the peace and a separate court of quarter sessions. The ancient the gloom and the tendency to despair. To a later county, which is in the diocese of St. Davids, contains 75 entire generation it will probably appear that, whatever the ecclesiastical parishes and districts, and parts of one other. Education.-~Th.eTe is a residential training college for schoolexaggerations and the misconceptions to which he was led, masteis (Lational Society s) at Carmarthen, and at Llanelly there his vehement attacks at least called attention to rather is a board school for deaf children. The number of elementary grave limitations and defects in the current beliefs and schools on 31st August 1899 was 166, of which 100 were board social tendencies of the time. The mannerisms and and 66 voluntary schools, the latter including 54 National grotesque exaggerations of his writings annoyed persons of Church of England Schools, 2 Roman Catholic, and 10 “ British and other.” The average attendance at board schools was 14,592, refinement, and suggest Matthew Arnold’s advice to flee and at voluntary schools 6421. The total school board receipts for Carlylese as you would flee the devil. Yet the shrewd the year ending 29th September 1899 were over £64,909. The common-sense, the biting humour, the power of graphic income under the Agricultural Rates Act was over £2849. Agriculture.—About three-fourths of the total area of the description, and the imaginative “ mysticism ” give them a unique attraction for many even who do not fully county is under cultivation, and of this about three-fourths is in permanent pasture. There are also over 47,000 acres in sympathize with the implied philosophy or with the mountain pasture, and over 23,000 under woods. More than half Puritanical code of ethics. The letters and autobio- the acreage under corn crops is occupied by oats, about one-fourth graphical writings, whether they attract or repel sympathy, by barley, and more than one-sixth by wheat. About one-half are at least a series of documents of profound interest for of the green crop acreage is occupied by turnips and swedes, more than one-third by potatoes. The chief attention of the any one who cares to study character, and display an and farmer is devoted to stock raising and dairy farming. The almost unique idiosyncrasy. following table gives the larger main divisions of the cultivated The chief authorities for Carlyle’s fife are his own Reminiscences, area at intervals of five years from 1880 :— the letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle, and the four volumes of Total area r roude s Biography. — Prof. Norton’s edition of the Reminisunder Corn Green Year. Cultiva- Crops. Crops. Clover. Permanent amces and^ his collection of Carlyle’s Early Letters correct some of Pasture. Fallow. tion. rroude s inaccuracies.—-A fist of many articles upon Carlyle is given by Mr Ireland in Notes and Queries, sixth series, vol. iv. 1880 429,000 67,265 10,079 41,592 307,610 2454 Among other authors may be noticed Henry James, sen., in 1885 441.108 63,258 10,601 37,207 327,819 2223 iterary Remains. Prof. Masson. Carlyle, Personally and in 1890 445,775 60,205 10,806 30,370 342,932 1436 fus Writings. Conway. Thomas CaWyA.—Larkin. The Oven 1895 441,325 56,557 10,114 29,855 343,994 744 Secret of Carlyle s Zf/e.—Mrs Oliphant in Macmillan's Magazine 1900 442.109 52,333 10,191 33,915 344,772 839 pn S> Ve A'oo Jr88LTG- 1884. n^bles in Fortnightly Review(lforS May 1883 and! November ) The following table gives particulars regarding the principal five stock for the same years :— Carmarthen, & municipal borough (extended 1898), contributory parliamentary borough (uniting with Total Total Cows or Heifers Year. Horses. or in Sheep. Pigs. Cattle. in Milk Llanelly), and county town of Carmarthenshire, Wales, Calf. 3*. miles N.W. of Swansea by rail, on the Towy, about 1880 19,091 106,835 48,771 194,890 25,103 . ^ es ^rom the sea. The borough forms a county of 1885 19,419 115,834 51,855 213,091 30,146 itself. . Recent erections are a chapel of ease and a 1890 20,791 116,793 52,403 243,155 36,558 lasonic hall; the county and borough infirmary has been 1895 21,703 115,564 51,734 234,606 39,644 1900 22,172 123,361 extended. Iron-founding, woollen manufacture, tanning, 51,809 271,869 36,514