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CARMAUX — CARNARVONSHIRE 600 Industries and Trade.—According to the report of the chief personal veracity between himself and Mr Parnell as to inspector of factories for 1898 (1900), the number of persons his negotiations with the latter in respect of Home Rule, employed in factories and workshops in 1897 was 9728, as com- was terminated by another premature resignntion He pared with 9805 in 1896. Of the 7829 persons employed in non- never returned to office, and died on 29th June 1890. As textile factories, 5068 were employed in the founding and conversion of metals. Of the 1200 persons employed in 1897 in a statesman his career was marred by extreme sensitiveworkshops, the majority were employed in the clothing industry. ness • but he was beloved as a man of worth and admired The total number of persons employed in mines and quarries in as a man of culture. He was high steward of the. Univer1899 was 5362. Good limestone is plentiful in the southern part of the county, no fewer than 110,066 tons being raised in 1899. sity of Oxford, and president of the Society of Antiquaries. In the same year 67,926 tons of sandstone were raised. Within Carnarvon, a municipal and parliamentary recent years little or no ironstone has been dug. The output of borough, seaport, market town, and county town of fireclay is increasing, as also is that of lead (1933 tons, valued at £7683, in 1899). Coal is the principal mineral, and its production Carnarvonshire, Wales, just within the western entrance is increasing. The following table gives the tonnage and value of the Menai Strait, 248 miles by rail N.W. of London. of the production in 1890 and 1899 :— The castle has recently been restored by order of the Year. Tons. Value. Government. The guildhall dates from 1874. The 1890 .... 762,032 £333,389 literary institute, with free library, was erected in 1884. 1899 .... 1,207,205 £421,612 In the market-place is a statue (1888) to Sir Hugh Owen, The total value of fish landed at Llanelly in 1899, including shell- a distinguished promoter of Welsh education. The fish, was £979. Authorities.—Spurell. Carmarthen and its Neighbour- Pavilion will seat 8000 persons. Three of the weekly hood, Carmarthen, 1860, 2nd ed., 1879.—Curtis. The newspapers are in the Welsh language. Vessels entering Antiquities of Carmarthenshire. London, 1880.—The Carmarthen- port in 1888—1667 of 123,439 tons, clearances, 1511 shire Miscellany, and Notes and Queries for South-West Wales. of 116,784 tons; in 1898—total entrances, 2020 of See also the various guide-books to South Wales. (t. F. H.) 146,261 tons; total clchrances, 1965 of 145,297 tons. Carmaux, a town and railway station in the The total exports of the produce and manufactures of arrondissement of Albi, department of Tarn, France, 10 the United Kingdom in 1898 amounted to the value of miles 1ST. of Albi, on a tributary of the Aveyron. The £152,468, against £186,386 in 1888. Area of municipal town gives its name to an important coal-basin, with an borough, 2214 acres; population (1881), 10,258; (1901), output in 1899 of 750,790 tons (metric) and employing 9760. over 3800 workpeople. The manufacture of glass is an Carnarvonshire, a maritime county of North important industry. Population (1881), 5744; (1891), Wales, bounded on the N.W. by Menai Strait, separating 8087; (1896), 7899, (comm.) 9993; (1901), 10,948. it from Anglesey, and by Beaumaris Bay, on the E. by DenGarmigTianO, a town of the province of Florence, bigh (where is also a small detached portion), on the S.E. by Tuscany, Italy, 13 miles K by W. from Florence, the ancient Merioneth, on the S. by Cardigan Bay, and on the S.W. by Garminianum. Over 4000 of its people are engaged in Carnarvon Bay. making straw hats and straw plait. Population, about Area and Population.—The area of the ancient county is 361,097 11,000. acres, or 564 square miles. The population in 18S1 was 119,349, in 1891 was 118,204, of whom 56,496 were males and ol»708 Carmona, a town of Spain in the province of and females, the number of persons per square mile being 210, and of Seville, with a railway station on the line from Cordova to acres to a person 3'05. In 1901 the population was 126,835. Seville. Population (1897), 18,478. On a large tract The area of the administrative county, as given in the census of land near the Seville road excavations have been made returns of 1891, was 360,138 acres, with a population of 117,233, but in 1895 a small addition was made to the administhat led to the discovery of a very important example of trative area by the transference to Carnarvon of the part of the a Roman necropolis, lying between two Roman roads, parish of Beddgelert in Merioneth. The area of the registration enough curiosities being found to fill a local museum county is 372,135 acres, with a population m 1891 of founded by the Carmona Archaeological Society. In 1886, Within this area the increase of population between 1881 and 1891 near the necropolis, an amphitheatre and more tombs were was only 1‘44 per cent., while within the ancient county area there an actual decrease of 0'9 per cent. Within the registration found, chiefly of the early Christian centuries. These was area the excess of births over deaths was 10,244, and the decrease remarkable remains are fully described in the work of in resident population was 1785. The following table gives the Senor Rada, with illustrations by Mr Bonsor, published numbers of marriages, births, and deaths, with the number and in 1886 under the title of Necropolis of Carmona, and percentage of illegitimate births, for 1880, 1890, and 1898 : Illegitimate Births. in that of Senor Sales y Ferre (1887) styled Estudios Year. Marriages. Births. Deaths. arqueologicos e historicos. Per cent. No. Carnarvon, Henry Howard Moly214 57 2481 3756 808 1880 neux Herbert, 4th Earl of (1831-1890), was born 7'5 229 2266 3040 1890 837 6'2 214 on 24th June 1831. He succeeded to the title in 1849, 2483 3419 1106 1899 and soon after taking his degree began to play a prominent part in the deliberations of the House of Lords. In In 1891 there were in the county 421 natives of Scotland, 630 1858 he was Under Secretary for the Colonies, and in 1866 natives of Ireland, and 244 foreigners, while 12,604 persons could English, 78,780 Welsh, and 28,330 English and Welsh. Secretary of State. In this capacity he introduced in 1867 speak Constitution and Government.—The ancient county is divided the Bill for the federation of the British North American into two parliamentary divisions, and it also includes the Carnarvon provinces which set so many political problems at rest; but district of boroughs, consisting of Bangor city, Carnarvon, Conway, he had not the privilege of passing it, having, before the Criccieth, Nevin, and Pwllheli. There are four municipal boroughs (11,269), Carnarvon (9725), Conway (4636), and Pwllheli measure became law, resigned, owing to his distaste for —Bangor (3675).° The following are urban districts :—Bethesda (5271), Mr Disraeli’s Reform Bill. Resuming office in 1874, he Bettws-y-coed (881), Criccieth (1410), Llandudno (9307), 48W Llanendeavoured to confer a similar boon on South Africa, but fairfechan (2768), Penmaenmawr (3501), and Ynyscynhaiarn ( h the times were not ripe, and he was singularly unfortunate Carnarvon is in the North Wales circuit, and assizes are held The borough of Carnarvon has a separate commission ot in his principal agent, Mr Fronde. In 1878 he again re- there. the peace, but no separate court of quarter sessions. The ancient signed, out of opposition to Lord Beaconsfield’s policy on county—which is chiefly in the diocese of Bangor, with a lew the Eastern Question; but on his party’s return to power parishes in that of St Asaph — contains 61 entire ecclesiastical in 1885 he became Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. His.short parishes or districts, and parts of four others. Education.—Bangor is the seat of the University College oi period of office, memorable for a conflict on a question of