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602

CARNOT — CARPATHIAN

only available for floating timber. There were 156 post driven into exile by the energy of the Minister of the and 71 telegraph offices, with 792 kilometres of line and Interior, M. Constans, it fell to President Carnot’s lot to 2509 kilometres of wire. The Slovenes regard the Croa- appear as the head of the State on two occasions of especial tians as their nearest relatives and exemplars among the interest, the celebration of the centenary of 1789, and the Slav peoples. The languages are closely related, more opening of the Paris Exhibition of that year. The perfect particularly the dialects spoken in the adjoining districts success of both was regarded, not unreasonably, as a of the two countries. The so-called “Young Slovenes,” popular ratification of the Republic, and though constill affected by the temporary unification of “ Illyria,” as tinually harassed by the formation and dissolution of also by the aggravation of the nationality struggle, aspire ephemeral ministries, by Socialist outbreaks, and the to the formation of a “ Greater Croatia,” uniting at least beginnings of anti-Semitism, M. Carnot had but one the whole Catholic section of the South Slav race. The serious crisis to surmount, the Panama scandals of 1892, more moderate representatives of the national sentiment which, if they greatly damaged the prestige of the State, content themselves with advocating the unification and increased the respect felt for its head, against whose autonomy of the Southern Slavs in the Cisleithan half of integrity none could breathe a word. M. Carnot seemed the monarchy. German influence in the province is now to be arriving at the zenith of popularity, when on 24th very slight and is still declining. Energetic efforts are being June 1894, after delivering at a public banquet at Lyons made to cultivate literature, science, and the drama in the a speech in which he appeared to imply that he nevertheSlovene language. The Dramatic Association has brought less should not seek re-election, he was stabbed by an out over a hundred original and translated pieces, many of Italian anarchist named Caserio, and expired almost which have been produced in the subsidized Slovene immediately. The horror and grief excited by this theatre at Laibach. The National Literary Association, tragedy were boundless, and the President was honoured which numbers over 46,000 members, distributes a quarter with a splendid funeral in the Pantheon, Paris. It was of a million volumes annually, while its encouragement felt that he had been a worthy hereditary representative promotes and maintains a national periodical press, which of the best traditions of the first Republic, and had calls forth a succession of talented young writers. The exemplified the type of man of which the third Republic anti-German and anti-Italian feeling is very strong, stood especially in need. If his abilities, though respectand has found expression in violent demonstrations of able, were not of the first order, the more credit was fraternity with the Czechs and in an abortive effort to due to the weight of character which had so well supplied (k- g-) make the Russian language a subject of instruction in the the place of genius. public schools, preliminary to elevating it to the rank of Carnoustie, a police burgh and summer resort of the Panslavist medium of intercommunication. S.E. Forfarshire, Scotland, on the German Ocean, 10§ Hoff, Hist. - Statist. - Topogr. Gemaldc von Krain '(Laibach, miles E.N.E. of Dundee by rail. There are various minor 1808); and Dimitz’s historical works on the province, published industries. Bathing and golfing are good. Modern erecat Laibach, 1874-86. (-*• O’N.) tions are an Episcopal church, municipal buildings, and a Carnot, Marie Francis Sadi (1837- Union Club. Population (1881), 3321 ; (1901), 5204. 1894), fourth President of the French Republic, was Carouge. See Geneva. born at Limoges on 11th August 1837. He was Carpathian, or Karpathian Mountains.— grandson of the famous “organizer of victory” in the Since 1875 the Carpathian Mountain Club, as well as first Republic, and son of Hippolyte Carnot, Minister of Public Instruction under the Provisional Govern- individual scientific investigators, have done a good ment of 1848. He was educated as a civil engineer, deal to add to our knowledge of this mountain system, and after having highly distinguished himself at the especially from the geological standpoint. Where fully ficole Poly technique and the Ecole des Ponts et Chaus- developed, the Carpathian chain consists of four zones. sees, obtained an appointment in the public service. His (1) An outer undulating foreland of soft Tertiary hereditary republicanism recommended him to the Govern- (Miocene) rocks, whose folds are inclined to the north ment of National Defence, by which he was entrusted in and east, and overlie the ancient Russian platform. It 1870 with the task of organizing resistance in the depart- is rich in deposits of salt (Wieleczka), mineral wax ments of the Eure, Calvados, and Seine Inferieure, and (Boryslav), and petroleum (Drohobycz),. the last occurmade prefect of the last named in January 1871. In the ring also in the next zone. (2) A continuous sandstone following month he was elected to the National Assembly zone, extending from the March to the extreme southby the department Cote d’Or. He took no prominent east, to which the name Carpathian is usually applied in part in politics until August 1878, when he was appointed the narrower sense. It corresponds to the chain of the secretary to the Minister of Public Works. In September Pre-Alps, and consists of short parallel ranges of no great 1880 he became minister, and again in April 1885, passing height, formed mainly of Carpathian sandstone, a flysch almost immediately to the Ministry of linance, which he of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The rivers zigzag in held under both the Ferry and the Freycinet administra- alternate longitudinal and transverse valleys, occasionally tions until December 1886. When the Wilson scandals cutting their beds in softer schistose strata. Ridges of occasioned the downfall of M. Grevy in December 1887, limestone (Klippen) are prominent in. the north. This M. Carnot’s high character for integrity marked him out zone resembles the Swiss Jura in its simple folded strucas a candidate for the Presidency, and he obtained the ture, but not in composition. (3) A crystalline zone of support of M. Clemenceau and of all those who objected granites and schists intimately folded with Palaeozoic and to the candidatures of men who had been more active Mesozoic rocks, and rich in minerals. It is absent in in the political arena, so that he was elected by. 616 the Central Carpathians. (4) A young volcanic zone, also votes out of 827. He assumed office at a critical rich in minerals, is present on the much-faulted inner period, when the Republic was all but openly attacked by side of the chain, except in the west of. Transylvania. General Boulanger. President Carnot’s ostensible part Geographically the system is divisible into—(i) The during this agitation was mainly confined to augmenting West Carpathians, a complex, roughly circular mass his popularity by well-timed appearances on public occa- about 150 miles in diameter, lying between the March sions, which gained credit for the Presidency and the and the Poprad. (ii) The simple parallel ranges of the Republic. When, early in 1889, Boulanger was finally Central or Wooded Carpathians, 60 to 70 miles broad,