he became even more estranged from the majority of the N.E. from Lisbon. In the upper town there is an ancient republicans. Bitter experience had shown him that their castle, now used as a lyceum. Population, 6 <28. The federal doctrines and revolutionary methods could lead to district of Gastello Branco consists chiefly of the valleys nothing in harmony with the aspirations of the majority of of the Ponsul, Ocreza, and Aravil (right-hand affluents of Spaniards. He elected, to use his own words, to defend the Tagus), although about 50 per cent, of the surface is and to seek the realization of the substance of the uncultivated. Area, 2556 square miles. Population, programme of the Spanish revolution of 1868 by evolution, 205,211, giving 80 inhabitants to the square mile. and legal, pacific means. Hence the contrast between his Castel Ion de la Plana, a maritime province attitude from 1876 to 1886, during the reign of Alphonso in the E. of Spain, with an area of 2446 square miles, XII., when he stood in the front rank of the Opposition divided into 9 administrative districts and 140 parishes; to defend the reforms of that revolution against Senor population (1887), 292,437; (189/), 304,4//. The Canovas, and his attitude from 1886 to 1891. In this surface is mostly mountainous, and flat only near the latter period Castelar acted as a sort of independent coast. The principal rivers are the Mijares, Palencia, auxiliary of Sagasta and of the Liberal party. As soon as Bergantes, and Cenia. The climate is cold and variable Castelar saw universal suffrage re-established he solemnly in the hilly districts, temperate in winter, and very warm declared in the Cortes that his task was accomplished, his in summer in the lowlands. Eighty miles of railways are political mission at an end, and that he proposed, to already worked, and new lines are being constructed. The devote the remainder of his life to those literary, historical, local industries are increasing, and are mainly connected philosophical, and economic studies which he had never with iron and copper works, salt-fish factories, paper, neglected even in the busiest days of his political career. porcelain, woollen, cotton, silk, esparto, brandy, and oils. Indeed, it was his extraordinary activity and power of Wine, oranges, and oil are exported to foreign countries assimilation in such directions that allowed him to keep and other parts of Spain. About 100 vessels annually his fellow-countrymen so well informed of what was going enter the ports of the province for foreign trade, and 1800 on in the outer world. His literary and journalistic labours coasting vessels. The fishing fleet is composed of 300 occupied much of his time, and were his chief means of boats. Only 3 mines—1 zinc, 1 iron, 1 lead—are worked. subsistence. He left unfinished a history of Europe in the The live stock includes 3803 horses, 18,572 mules, 8221 19th century. The most conspicuous of his earlier works asses, 1515 cattle, 164,273 sheep, 53,373 goats, 20,473 were :—A History of Civilization in the. First live Centuries pigs. 115,800 acres are devoted to the culture of wheat, of Christianity, Recollections of Italy, Life of Lord Byron, 2(?66 to that of oats, 15,600 to barley, 15,042 to rye, The History of the Republican Movement in Europe, The 4707 to maize, 15,660 to chick-peas, 128,405 to vines, Redemption of Slaves, The Religious Revolution, Historical 72,335 to olive groves. Essays on the Middle Ages, The Eastern Question, Fra Castel Ion de la Plana, the capital of the Filippo Lippi, History of the Discovery of America, and some above province, situated 4 miles from the sea. and 40 historical novels. Castelar died near Murcia on 25th May N.N.E of Yalencia. Its population was 25,195 in 1887, 1899, at the age of 66. His funeral at Madrid was an and 30,584 in 1897. Its port, called. El Grao, is on the imposing demonstration of the sympathy and respect of all coast some miles from the town, and is entered by about classes and parties. (A- E- H-) 200 vessels every year. It is a comparatively modern Cast© If ran CO, a town of the province of Bologna, town, of which the industries—manufactures of leather, Emilia, Italy, 16 miles N.W. from Bologna on the railway porcelain, silk, brandy, cork, and linen are developing. to Modena. It has several churches with pictures by artists The environs are fertile and well irrigated by water drawn of the Bolognese school, and carries on spinning of textiles from the river Mijares. and match - making. It is identified with the ancient Castel San Pietro, a town of the province of Forum, Gallorum, where Hirtius defeated Antonius in Bologna, Emilia, Italy, 7 miles S.E. from Bologna. ^ It has 43 b.c. Population, about 12,500. saline and ferruginous mineral springs (64‘4°-73-4 Fahr.) Castelfranco Veneto, a town of the province and baths. Population, about 12,500. of Treviso, Yenetia, Italy, 16 miles W. from Treviso on Castelvetrano, a town of the province of Trathe railway to Yerona. It is famous as the birthplace of pani, Sicily, Italy, 46 miles S.E. from Trapani by rail. the painter Giorgione, i.e., Barbarelli (1476-1511), and for There is a small museum containing relics from Sehnus, the altar-piece by him in the principal church. The people including terra-cottas and a bronze statuette of Apollo. The are engaged in the silk industries. Here the French defeated town has brickworks, olive-oil presses, and macaroni factories. the Austrians under Prince Rohan in 1805. Population, Population, about 20,500. Seven miles to the southabout 7500. west at Campobello are the quarries whence the ancients Castel lam mare, atownof Campania, Italy, in the extracted the stone for the temples, &c., of Selinus. province of Naples, on the E. shore of the Gulf of Naples, Castle Douglas, a burgh of barony, police 18 miles by rail S.E. from Naples. The royal arsenals and burgh, and railway junction of Kirkcudbrightshire, Scota royal dockyard are the principal industrial works; but land, on Carlingwark Loch, 19J miles S.W. of Dumfries. there are also ironworks, cotton-mills, and a small-arms Its auction marts for sheep and cattle sales are now e factory. The royal palace has been converted into a hotel. largest in the south-east of Scotland; at an autumn sale The imports varied between £271,000 and £1,100,000 as many as 15,000 sheep and 1400 cattle are disposed ot in the eleven years ending 1899, and the exports (65 per in one day. It has a foundry, an agricultural implement cent, macaroni) increased from £82,400 in 1888 to work, and a tannery; a town hall with reading-room and £335,900 in 1899. The port is cleared by about 280 library, and a Diamond Jubilee cottage hospital. a er vessels of 250,000 tons annually. In 1899 the Italian and drainage schemes have been carried out. There are Government voted £56,000 for the extension of the pier five branch banks. The churches are Established, three and the improvement of the harbour. Population, about United Free, Episcopal and Roman Catholic. The public 34,500. school had an average attendance of 487 m 1898-9 , . a Roman Catholic school of 49. Population (1881), , > Gastello Branco, a city and episcopal see of Portugal, capital and district of same name, 120 miles (1891), 2851 ; (1901), 3018.