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CAUDEBEC — CAVALLOTTI giving occupation to 91,289 persons and yielding a yearly production valued at £6,832,800. The schools in Caucasia were in 1897 : fourteen gymnasia and progymnasia for boys (6196 pupils) and twenty for girls (7247), 10 Kealschulen (3176), five schools for teachers (389), four town (732), five mountaineers (638), three marine (181), fourteen professional schools (987), and 150 private schools (7272 pupils). For primary education there were 1380 schools (88,182 pupils), all under the Ministry of Public Education. There were, besides, nineteen secondary and 1308 primary schools kept by Cossacks and under other departments, and having an aggregate of 42,671 boys and 13,520 girls. In the Mussulman and Jewish schools there Avere 2235 and 1360 pupils respectively. Caucasia has two main lines of railways, both running N.AV. to S.E., in the N. and in the S. of the Caucasus range. The former, starting at Kostov on the Don, runs to Vladikavkaz (402 miles), and thence to Petrovsk on the Caspian Sea (180 miles), Avhence it has been continued along the sea-coast, vi& Derbent, to Baku (234 miles). One branch connects the Tikhoryetskaya station of this line with Novorossiysk on the Black Sea (168 miles), and is continued north-eastwards to Tsaritsyn on the Volga (333 miles); two others connect the wateriug-toAvns Kislovodsk and Pyatigorsk with the main line. A third branch to Kizlyar is being built. The Transcaucasian line, connected with the firstnamed at its far eastern end only, i.e., at Baku, begins at Batum and Poti on the Black Sea and runs, through the Suram tunnel, to Tiflis and past Elisabethpol to Baku (400 miles from Batum). It has small branches to Kutais, to Tkvibuli coal-mines, to Chiaturi and Darkweti, to Stavropol, with the main line at Kavkazskaya station (96 miles), and to Borzhom, while a line of great strategic importance has been built from Tiflis to Kars (185 miles). The Transcaucasian line and Tiflis can thus only be reached by rail on a very circuitous line via Baku. The usual way of communication is by post-horses from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis, vid the Darial gorge. A road has been made from Vladikavkaz to Kutais vid the Mamisson Pass. The other passes across the Caucasus (see above) are mere bridle-paths. The chief ports of Caucasia are Batum, Poti, Novorossiysk and Sukhum on the Black Sea, Baku and Petrovsk on the Caspian. The exports from the Black Sea ports reach about 60,000,000 roubles (£6,000,000), and consist chiefly of naphtha, manganese ore, linseed, raw silk and wool, liquorice root, corn, salt, and timber. The chief imports, about £1,000,000 worth, are tin and cheap timber (for naphtha boxes), iron, steel, tin, lead, chemicals, glass, china, and machinery. The maritime trade with Persia averages yearly £850,000 Avorth for the exports (naphtha, cottons, metals) and £760,000 for the imports (rice, carpets, dried fruit), to Avhich items those of the inland trade with Persia (about £400,000 of imports and £100,000 of exports) have to be added. The internal trade of Caucasia with Russia is very considerable both by land and by sea. The ports of Caucasia Avere visited in 1892 by 1165 foreign ships and 4073 engaged in cabotage. For the administrative subdivisions of Caucasia, see Russia. Authorities.—The literature of the Caucasus is immense. The best general description in a West European language is, according to Stebnitsky and Masalsky, that of ElisBe Reclus in Geographic Universelle (English version by Keane), to which Gen. Stebnitsky has made most careful annotations in the Caucasian Zapiski. There may also be mentioned now, by way of supplementing the list of AA’orks quoted in the ninth edition : Freshfield and others. The Exploration of the Caucasus. 2 vols. London and New York, 1896.—V. Sella and D. Vallino. Net Caucaso Centrale. Turin, 1890. — Abich. Geologische Forschungen.—G. Radde. Vier Vortrdge. 1874.—E. Chantre. Recherches Anthropologiques dans It Caucase. 1885-87.—R. Erckert. Dtr Caucasus und seine Volker. 1885.—Articles “Caucasus,” &c., in Semenoff’s Geographical Dictionary (Slovar), and in Russkiy Encyclopedicheskiy Slovar (1894), by V. Mosalsky, Miller, &c. ; Zhivopisnaya Rossiya, vol. ix. ; also by Litvioroff, Protsenko, V. Krivenko, Nadezhdin, Egiazaroff (institutions), O. Miller and M. Kovalevsky (ancient laiv).—The Zapiski and the Izvestia of the Caucasian and the Russian Geographical Societies and Shornik Materialov are mines of information, while the Kavkazskiy Kalendar, published every year at Tiflis, contains, besides recent statistics and maps, full bibliographical indexes (also lately in the St. Petersburg Izvestia).—The local publications of the separate provinces, and the reviews Zemlevyedenie (Moscoav), Etnograficheskoye Obozryenie, &c., may also be consulted.—The best maps (general, orographical, relief, ethnographical, &c.) are those issued from the Military Topographical Depot of the General Statf. (p. A. K.) Caudebec-l&S-Elbeuf, a French town, in the arrondissement of Rouen, department of Seine Inferieure, 12 miles S. by W. of Rouen, on railway to Louviers. It is practically a suburb of Elbeuf, and has important manu-


factures of cloth and wool-spinning. Population (1881), 11,290; (1901), 6981. Caudry, a town and railway station of France, in the department of Nord, arrondissement of Cambrai, 39 miles in direct line S.S.E. of Lille. It has important manufactures of tulle and lace: others are muslin, guipure, chicory, and sugar. Population (1881), 4956; (1901), 9934. Caulfield, a borough (created 13th April 1901) of Victoria, Australia, in the county of Bourke, 7| miles E. of Melbourne, with which it is connected by rail. It has a fine racecourse, the headquarters of the Victorian Amateur Turf Club. Population (1891), 8005; (1901), 9607. Cautin, a province of southern Chile, situated between 38° 25' and 39° 35' S. lat., 71° 00' and 73° 25' W. long. Its area is 3120 square miles. The population in 1895 was 78,221. It is divided into two departments, Temuco and Imperial. In 1898 there were 1837 births, 456 marriages, and 1510 deaths. Temuco is the capital. Cava del Tirreni, a town, bishop’s see, and summer resort of the province of Salerno, Campania, Italy, 6 miles N.W. from Salerno by the railway to Naples. Population, about 16,250. Cavagnari, Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon (1841-1879), British military administrator, was by birth a Frenchman, being the son of a French general by his marriage with an Irish lady, and was born at Stenay, in the department of the Meuse, 4th July 1841. He nevertheless obtained naturalization as an Englishman and entered the military service of the East India Company. After passing through the college at Addiscombe, he served through the Oudh campaign against the mutineers in 1858 and 1859. In 1861 he was appointed an assistant commissioner in the Punjab, and in 1877 became deputy commissioner of Peshawar, and took part in several expeditions against the hill tribes. In 1878 he was attached to the staff of the British embassy to Kabul, which the Afghans refused to allow to proceed. In May 1879, after the death of the Amir Sher Ali, Cavagnari negotiated and signed the treaty of Gandamak with his successor, Yakub Khan. By this the Afghans agreed to admit a British resident at Kabul, and the post Avas conferred on Cavagnari, who also received the Star of India and was made a K.C.B. He took up his residence in July, and for a time all seemed to go well, but on 3rd September Cavagnari and the other European members of the embassy were massacred in a sudden rising of mutinous Afghan troops. (See Afghanistan.) Cavallotti, Felice (1842-1898), Italian politician, was born at Milan, 6th November 1842. In 1860 and 1866 he fought with the Garibaldian Corps, but first attained notoriety by his anti-monarchical lampoons in the Gazzetta di Milano and in the Gazzettina Rosa between 1866 and 1872. Elected to Parliament as deputy for Corteolona in the latter year, he took the oath of allegiance after having publicly impugned its validity. Eloquence and turbulent combativeness in _ and out of Parliament secured for him the leadership of the Extreme Left on the death of Bertani in 1886. During his twelve years’ leadership his party increased in number from twenty to seventy, and at the time of his death his parliamentary influence was greater than ever before. Though ambitious and addicted to defamatory methods of personal attack which sometimes savoured of political blackmail, Cavallotti’s eloquent advocacy of democratic reform, and apparent generosity of sentiment, secured for him a popularity surpassed by