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624

OAVAN—CAVENDISH

The number of milch cows in 1891 was 45,224, and in 1900, 45,903. It is estimated that the total value of cattle, sheep, and pigs in 1899 was £1,650,243. In 1900 the number of holdings not exceeding 1 acre was 1169 ; between 1 and 5, 1447; between 5 and 15, 6916 ; between 15 and 30, 6913 ; between 30 and 50, 2471 ; between 50 and 100, 931 ; between 100 and 200, 222 ; between 200 and 500, 46 ; and above 500, 6—total, 20,121. The number of loans issued (the number of tenants being the same as the number of loans) under the Land Purchase Acts, 1885, 1891, and 1896, up to 31st March 1900, was 1854, amounting to £335,831. The number of loans sanctioned for agricultural improvements under sect. 31 of the Land Act, 1881, between 1882 and 1900, was 703, and"the amount issued was £40,327. The total amount issued on loan for all classes of works under the Land Improvement Acts, from the commencement of operations in 1847 to 31st March 1900, was £55,690. (w. H. Po.) Cavendish, George (1500-1562?), the biographer of Cardinal Wolsey, was the elder son of Thomas Cavendish, clerk of the pipe in the exchequer, and his wife, Alice Smith of Padbrook Hall. He was probably born at his father’s manor of Cavendish, in Suffolk. Later the family resided in London, in the parish of St Alban’s, Wood Street, where Thomas Cavendish died in 1524. Shortly after this event George married Margery Kemp, of Spains Hall, an heiress, and the niece of Sir Thomas More. About 1527 he entered the service of Cardinal Wolsey as gentleman-usher, and for the next three years he was divided from his wife, children, and estates, in the closest personal attendance on the great man. Cavendish was wholly devoted to Wolsey’s interests, and also he saw In 1881 the percentage of illiterates among Roman Catholics was in this appointment an opportunity to gratify his master25 •2. In 1891 there were 7 superior schools, with 150 pupils (67 passion, a craving “to see and be acquainted with Roman Catholics and 83 Protestants), and 295 primary schools, strangers, in especial with men in honour and authority.” with 17,314 pupils (13,879 Roman Catholics and 3435 Protestants). The number of pupils on the rolls of the national schools on 30th He was faithful to his master in disgrace, and showed the September 1899 was 18,953, of whom 15,248 were Roman Catholics courage of the “loyal servitor.” It is plain that he and 3705 Protestants. The following table gives the numbers of enjoyed Wolsey’s closest confidence to the end, for after births, deaths, and marriages in various years :— the cardinal’s death George Cavendish was called before Deaths, i Marriages. Births. the Privy Council and closely examined as to Wolsey’s Year. latest acts and words. He gave his evidence so clearly 328 2091 3099 1881 and with so much natural dignity, that he won the 1826 377 2148 1891 1472 376 2003 1899 applause of the hostile council, and the praise of being “ a just and diligent servant.” He was not allowed to suffer In 1899 the birth-rate per 1000 was 17'9, and the death-rate 13-2 ; in pocket by his fidelity to his master, but retired, as it the rate of illegitimacy was 1'5 per cent, of the total births. The total number of emigrants who left the county between 1st May would seem, a wealthy man to his estate of Glemsford, in 1851 and 31st December 1899 was 110,468, of whom 56,084 were West Suffolk, in 1530. He was only thirty years of age, males and 54,384 females. The following are the chief towns in but his appetite for being acquainted with strange acts and the county, with their populations in 1891:—Cavan, 2968 ; Bel- persons was apparently sated, for we do not hear of his turbet, 1675 ; Cootehill, 1593. Administration.—The county is divided into two parliamentary engaging in any more adventures. It is not to be doubted divisions, East and West, the number of registered electors in that Cavendish had taken down notes of Wolsey’s con1900 being respectively 9372 and 9944. The rateable value in versation and movements, for many years passed before 1900 was £278,596. By the Local Government (Ireland) Act, his biography was composed. At length, in 1557, he 1898, the fiscal and administrative duties of the grand jury and (to a less extent) of other bodies were transferred to a county wrote it out in its final form. It was not, however, council, urban and rural district councils were established, and possible to publish it in the author’s lifetime, but it was under that Act the county now comprises 2 urban and 7 rural widely circulated in MS. Evidently one of these MSS. sanitary districts. fell into Shakespeare’s hands, for that poet made use of Agriculture.—The following tables show the acreage under it in his King Henry VIII., although it is excessive to crops (including meadow and clover), and the amount of live say, as Singer has done, that Shakespeare “merely put stock, in 1881, 1891, 1895, and 1900:— Cavendish’s language into verse. ” The book was Other Meadow Barley, Flax. Total. first printed in 1641, in a garbled text, and under Green and Wheat. Oats. Beans, Potatoes. Turnips. Crops. Clover. the title of The Negotiations of Thomas Wolsey. etc. 2083 60,683 8807 148,169 The genuine text, from contemporary MSS., was 2915 26,355 91 1881 379 46,856 3181 70,167 3332 147,376 given to the world in 1810, and more fully in 3421 26,939 1891 474 39,647 215 2860 70,030 4944 141,475 1815. Until that time it was believed that the 3551 24,781 69 1895 270 34,970 3028 70,637 1219 732,391 2921 23,654 79 30,349 1900 504 book was the composition of George Cavendish’s For 1899 the total value of cereal and other crops was estimated younger brother William, the founder of Chatsworth, by the Registrar-General at £906,713. The number of acres under who also was attached to Wolsey. Joseph Hunter proved pasture in 1881 was 246,441, and in 1900, 261,104. this to be impossible, and definitely asserted the claim of George. The latter is believed to have died at Glemsford Horses Asses. Cattle. Sheep. Pigs, i Goats. Poultry. in or about 1562. The intrinsic value of Cavendish’s and Mules. Life of Cardinal Wolsey has long been perceived, for it 14,359 34,753 15,442 510,318 1881 11,503 8131 104,797 is the sole authentic record of a multitude of events highly 25,634 51,084 20,342 594,539 1891 13,305 8793 121,243 51,797 18,581 649,093 1S95 ;, 14,017 9242 117,433 18,251 important in a particularly interesting section of the history 1900 13,258 9370 121,908 25,562 56,171 18,284 737,320 of England. Its importance as a product of biographical

The British yeomanry force now numbers some 11,000 men, whose annual training lasts about ten days a year. With so short a training great results are not to be expected, but it is wonderful how much is accomplished in the time, and men and horses are excellent. The Imperial Yeomanry employed in South Africa consisted of men specially enlisted for one year, or until the end of the war, to act as mounted infantry. (See also under Armies.) (w. a.-t.) Cavan, an inland county of Ireland, province of Ulster. Population.—The area of the administrative county in 1900 was 497,025 acres, of which 132,391 were tillage, 261,104 pasture, 127 fallow, 5281 plantation, 13,493 turf-bog, 4685 marsh, 12,375 barren mountain, and 37,569 water, roads, fences, &c. The new administrative county under the Local Government (Ireland) Act, 1898, is identical with the old judicial county. Population (1881), 129,476 ; (1891), 111,917 ; (1901), 97,368, of whom 49,982 were males and 47,386 females, divided as follows among the different religions :—Roman Catholics, 78,921 ; Protestant Episcopalians, 14,095 ; Presbyterians, 3256; Methodists, 981'; other denominations, 115. The decrease of population between 1881 and 1891 was 13‘56. The average number of persons to an acre was ‘23. The following table gives the degree of education in 1891 Percentage. Males. Females. Total. R.C. Pr. Epis. Presb. 87-9 82-9 Read and write . 36,866 35,391 72,257 68'3 7-3 8-9 6,920 12,793 13-6 Read only . . 5,873 4-8 8-2 7,692 16,283 18-1 8,591 Illiterate . .