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CELLE — CEMENT

168. On the south coast must also be named Bonthain materials of this class. In practice, however, the term (4000); on the east coast, Balong-Nipa; and Buton “cement” used without qualification means Portland and Saleyer, seats of administration and ports of call for cement, its modifications and congeners: these are all the packet company’s steamers, on the island groups of hydraulic cements, i.e., when set they resist the action of water, and can, under favourable conditions, be allowed to the same names. Authorities.—Van Musschenbroek. Mededeelingen over N. set under water. It was well known to builders in the Celebes. Tijdschr. Aardr. Gen. iv. pp. 163, 322.—Schwarz en earliest historic times that certain limes would, when set, de Lange. De landweg hit de Minahassa naar Bolang Mongondo. resist the action of water, i.e., were hydraulic; it was also Meded. Ned. Zend. Gen. xx. p. 145.—Van Schelle. Vorslag van het voor komen vangondvoerendeaderen hij Samelatta {Menadd). Jaarb. known that this property could be conferred on ordinary v/h. Mijnwezen v. N. 1.1889.—Van Hoevell. Todjo, Scisesoe, Posso, lime by admixture of silicious materials such as puzzuolana Gorontalo, Moetan, &c. Tijdschr. Bat. Gen. xxxv.; Tijdschr. Aardr. or tufa. We have here the two classes into which hydraulic Gen. viii. ix. x.—Sarasin, Paul und Fritz. Berichte aus Celebes. cements are divided. Zeitschr. desGes. f. Erdk. xxix. p. 351.—Wichmann. Die BinnenWhen pure chalk or limestone is “burned,” i.e., heated secn van Celebes, Peterm. MitteiL, 1893, pp. 225, 253, 277.—Morris, Braam. Bcschrijvmg van de landschappen Moewa, Doerie, &c. in a kiln until its carbonic acid has been driven off, it Tijdschr. Bat. Gen. xxxvi. p. 152.-—Kruyt in the Mededeelingen yields pure lime. This slakes violently with pUzzuo= van het Ned. Zendelinggen. xxv. xxvi., &c. For more detailed water, giving slaked lime, which can be made lanic bibliography and recent data for the island and its population, see into a smooth paste with water and mixed with cement. Kan, Celebes, in the Encyclopaedic van Nederlandsch Indie, ed. by sand to form common mortar. The setting of the mortar Van der Lith and Spaan, The Hague, 1895, &c., vol. i. p. 314. is due to the drying of the lime (a purely physical pheno(c. M. K.) Celle, a town of Prussia, province of Hanover, 27 menon), no chemical action occurring between the lime miles by rail N.E. of Hanover, the former capital (14th and the sand. The function of the sand is simply that of century to 1705) of the dukes of Brunswick-Liineburg. a diluent to prevent undue shrinkage and cracking in The ducal castle, begun in 1485, but dating in part from drying. Subsequent hardening of the mortar is caused by the 18th century, still stands. The parish church contains the gradual absorption of carbonic acid from the air by the the tombs of the dukes, also of Sophia Dorothea, the lime, a skin of carbonate of lime being formed; but the divorced wife of George I. (of England). The law courts, action is superficial. Mortar made from pure or “ fat ” with a good library, the national museum, and the hall of lime cannot withstand the action of water, and is only the estates, are the remaining buildings of note. There used for work done above water-level. If, however, such are manufactures of woollen yarn, tobacco, umbrellas, “ fat ” lime is mixed in the presence of water, not with printers’ ink, &c., and a lively trade is conducted in sand but with silica in an active form, i.e., amorphous and wool, timber, honey, and wax. Gardening is also carried (generally) hydrated, or with a natural silicate containing silica in an active condition, it will unite with the silica on. Population (1885), 18,782; (1900), 19,884. and form a silicate of lime capable of resisting the action Cellier, Alfred (1844-1891), English musical of water. The mixture of the lime and active silica or composer, was born at Hackney in 1844. As a boy he silicate is a puzzuolanic cement. The simplest of all was a chorister at the Chapel Boyal, St James’s, under puzzuolanic cements would be a mixture of pure lime and the B,ev. Thomas Helmore, where Arthur Sullivan was hydrated silica, but though the latter is prepared artificione of his youthful colleagues. His first appointment ally for various purposes, it is too expensive to be used as was that of organist at All Saints’ Church, Blackheath a cement material. A similar obstacle lies in the way of (1862). In 1866 he succeeded Dr Chipp as director of using a certain native form of active silica, viz., Kieselguhr, the Ulster Hall concerts, Belfast, at the same time acting for it is too valuable as an absorbent of nitroglycerine, for as conductor of the Belfast Philharmonic Society. In the manufacture of dynamite, to be available for making 1868 he returned to London as organist of St Alban’s, puzzuolanic cement. There are, however, many silicious Holborn. From 1871 to 1875 he was conductor at the substances occurring abundantly in nature which can thus Prince’s Theatre, Manchester; and from 1877 to 1879 at be used. They are mostly of volcanic origin, and include various London theatres. During this period he composed pumice, tufa, santorin earth, trass, and puzzuolana itself. many comic operas and operettas, of which the most The following analyses show their general composition :— successful was The Sultan of Mocha, which was produced Neapolitan Roman Trass at Manchester in 1874, in London at the St James’s PuzzuoPuzzuo(per lana lana Theatre in 1876, and revived at the Strand Theatre in cent.). (per cent.). (per cent.). 1887. In 1880 Cellier visited America, producing a 19-32 32-64 27-SO musical version of Longfellow’s Masque of Pandora at Soluble silica (SiOs) . 50-40 25-94 35-38 Insoluble silicious residue Boston (1881). In 1883 his setting of Gray’s Elegy in 13-86 Alumina (AI2O3) 3"10 Ferric oxide (Fe^Oa) . the form of a cantata was produced at the Leeds Festival. 4-06 5-68 Lime (CaO) . . 0-13 0-35 1-37 In 1886 he won the great success of his life in Dorothy, Magnesia (MgO) Trace Trace Sulphuric anhydride (S03) a comic opera written to a libretto by B. C. Stephenson, 7V57 Combined water (FRO) 8-92 4-27 Carbonic anhydride (COo) which was produced at the Gaiety Theatre in September 5-'04 Moisture .... 1886, and, transferred first to the Prince of Wales’s Theatre 0-58 Alkalies and loss and subsequently to the Lyric Theatre, ran until April 100-00 1889. Doris (1889), and The Mountebanks, which was produced in January 1892, a few days after the composer’s An artificial product which serves perfectly as a puzzuodeath, were less successful. Cellier owed much to the lana is granulated blast-furnace slag. The slag, which influence of Sullivan. He had little of the latter’s humour must contain a high percentage of lime, is granulated by and vivacity, but he was a fertile melodist, and his being run while fused into abundance of water. This writing is invariably distinguished by elegance and granulated slag differs from the same slag allowed to cool refinement. He died in London in 1891. (r. a. s.) slowly, in that a portion of the energy which it possesses Cement.—Any material capable of adhering to and while fused is retained after it has solidified. It bears to uniting into a coherent mass fragments of a substance not ordinary slowly-cooled slag a similar relation to that borne in itself adhesive, is a cement. Glue, gum, paste, putty, by plastic sulphur to ordinary crystalline sulphur. This mortar, and Portland cement are familiar examples of potential energy becomes kinetic when the slag is brought