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CENTRALIA — CENTURIPE population; Mahommedans, 297,604, or 2‘8 per cent., mostly confined to the towns, being a much smaller proportion than in any other province of India. Aboriginal tribes numbered 1,592,149, or 15 per cent., the proportion rising to as high as 46 per cent, in the four hill districts on the Satpura range. Most of these are Gonds, who still preserve their own language, spoken by 1,379,580 persons in all India. In the native states the proportion of aboriginal tribes was 23 per cent. Christians numbered 12,979, or ’12 per cent., of whom 4782 were Europeans, 2105 Eurasians, and 578 Indo-Portuguese, leaving 5514 for native converts, chieiiy in the two districts of Nagpur and Eaipur. In the native states the total number of Christians was 338, having risen from 24 since the previous census. Jains numbered 48,644, chiefly in Saugor district; Parsis, 781, chiefly in Nagpur; and “others,” 938. The preliminary returns of the census of 1901 gave a total population for the British districts of 9,845,318, showing a decrease of 938,976 or 8‘7 per cent., due to the results of famine. In the feudatory states the population in 1901 was 1,983,496, showing a decrease of 8 per cent. Out of a total surveyed area of 55,413,037 acres, the area assessed to land revenue is 28,486,863, the average incidence being Rs.0:4:7 (say 5d.) per acre. In 1897-98 the total cultivated area was 15,390,504 acres, of which 1,134,727 acres were cropped more than once. The total irrigated area was 562,628 acres, almost entirely rice-land watered from tanks. There are no Government canals. The principal crops are rice (in Chhattisgarh), wheat (in the Nerbudda valley), millet, pulse, oil-seeds, and cotton (in the Wardha valley). In 1896-97 the total area under cotton was 737,104 acres. Industries.—'Yhz only important industries are connected with cotton and coal. In 1897 the total number of factories under Government inspection was 35, of which 26 worked in cotton. The total number of hands employed was 10,359, of whom 509 were children. The number of cotton-mills was 6, all owned by companies having a nominal capital of Its. 70,00,000, with 1708 looms and 124,610 spindles, working up in the year 200,000 cwt. of raw cotton, and employing 6930 hands, of whom 4830 were adult males. The total out-turn was 18,334,320 lb of yarn, chiefly of counts between Nos. 6 and 22 ; and 5,110,292 lb of woven goods. There are also about 30 factories for cleaning and pressing cotton. In 1896 a brewery was established at Jubbulpore, with an out-turn of 155,000 gallons. Two coal-mines are worked in the Central Provinces, at War ora and Mopani, to each of which there is a branch line of railway. In 1897-98 the output of the Warora colliery was 115,682 tons. The number of persons employed was 1435, of whom 1263 were adult males. In connexion with the colliery there is a fireclay business, which raised 2065 tons of fireclay and sold firebricks and tiles to the value of Rs.34,948. The Mopani colliery, which dates back to 1860, is worked by a joint-stock company. In 1898 the output was 22,472 tons, and the number of persons employed 276. Railways. — Until recently, the only railway in the Central Provinces was the Great Indian Peninsula, with two branches, one terminating at Nagpur, the other at Jubbulpore, whence it was continued by the East Indian system to Allahabad. The Bengal-Nagpur line has now opened up the eastern portion of the country, bringing it into direct connexion with Calcutta ; and a new branch of the Indian Midland, from Saugor through Damoh, has been partly constructed as a famine work. Large portions, however, in the hilly centre and in the south-east, are still remote from railways. Trade.—The trade of the Central Provinces is conducted mainly by rail with Bombay and with Calcutta. The following table gives the average value of imports and exports for three quinquennial periods ending 1887-88, 1892-93, and 1897-98 :—

Average, 1883-84 to 1887-88 ,, 1888-89 to 1892-93 ,, 1893-94 to 1897-98

Imports.

Exports

Rs. 3,54,32,617 3,42,23,356 4,33,44,883

Rs. 4,16,27,507 5,19,61,509 5,11,24,312

The chief imports are cotton piece goods, cotton twist, salt, sugar, provisions, railway materials, raw cotton, metals, coal, tobacco, spices, and kerosene oil. The chief exports are raw cotton, rice, wheat, oil-seeds, hides, and lac. The exports of wheat are liable to extreme fluctuations. During the five years ending 1887-88 they averaged nearly 8 million maunds ; in 1888-89 they reached their maximum of 10 million maunds ; during the five years ending 1897-98 they averaged only 2 million maunds, while in the famine year, 1897-98, they dropped to 280,000 maunds. Local Government. — The total number of civil and revenue courts is 245, and of criminal courts, 385. In 1898 the total number of police was 8606. The total number of municipalities

641

in the Central Provinces is 53, with an aggregate population of about 800,000. In all of them, except the hill station of Pachmarhi, a majority of the municipal committee is elected. Out of a total of 623 members, 445 are elected, and 565 are natives of India. In 1897-98 the aggregate municipal income was Rs. 13,91,958, of which Rs. 8,08,782 was derived from octroi and Rs.86,422 from water-rates. The aggregate municipal expenditure was Rs. 13,95,266, of which Rs.2,69,986 was devoted to conservancy, Rs.1,28,896 to waterworks, Rs.1,51,490 to education, Rs.73,616 to public works, and Rs.80,067 to hospitals. In every district, except Mandla, there is a district council, with subordinate local boards. The total number of members of these bodies is 1197, of whom 913 are elected and 1162 are natives of India. The aggregate income was Rs.7,97,158, of which Rs.3,76,000 was derived from local rates and Rs. 1,95,000 from cattle pound fees. The aggregate expenditure was Rs.7,18,221, of which Rs.2,89,000 was devoted to education, Rs. 1,94,000 to roads and public works, and Rs.87,000 to hospitals and sanitation. The net revenue and expenditure of the Central Provinces (in tens of rupees) for 1897-98 was as follows, distributed under the three heads of imperial, provincial, and local:—Net revenue, imperial, Rx.377,503 ; provincial, Rx.835,210 ; local, Rx.75,555 ; total, Rx.1,288,268. Net expenditure, imperial, Rx.1,189,376 ; provincial, Rx.821,193 ; local, Rx.89,572; total, Rx.2,100,141. The chief sources of revenue were: land, Rx.664,856 ; excise, Rx. 173,168 ; stamps, Rx. 158,414. Education.—The following table gives the chief statistics of education in the Central Provinces for the decennial years 1886-87 and 1896-97 1896-97. Schools.

Pupils

Schools.

Pupils

Colleges Secondary Schools Primary Schools Special Schools . Private Institutions

3 71 1799 18 4

100 4,216 102,173 463 49

5 248 2262 9

312 26,216 122,616 363

Total

1895

107,001 I 2524

149,507

Compared with the estimated population of school-going age (15 per cent, of the total population), the proportion of boys at school rose between 1895 and 1901 from 11'3 to 14'2 per cent., and the proportion of girls from ‘8 to IT per cent. The expenditure on education was, in 1886-87, Rs.8,19,228 ; inl896-97, Rs.10,52,805. Famine. —The Central Provinces have suffered from famine more severely than any other part of India. The complete failure of rain in the autumn of 1896 caused scarcity to develop suddenly into famine, which lasted until the end of 1897. The total number of persons in receipt of relief reached its maximum of nearly 700,000 in May 1897. The expenditure on relief alone was Rs.1,56,10,739 (say 1 million sterling) ; and the total cost of the famine, including loss of revenue, amounted to nearly twice that amount. During 1897 the death-rate for the whole province rose to 69 per thousand, or double the average, while the birthrate fell to 27 per thousand. The Central Provinces were stricken by another famine, yet more severe and widespread, caused by the complete failure of the rains in 1899. The maximum of persons relieved for the whole province was 1,971,000 in June 1900. In addition, about 68,000 persons were in receipt of relief in the native states. During the three years 1889-1902 the total expenditure on famine relief amounted to Rs. 6,10,81,000 (say 4 millions sterling). See R. H. Craddock. Report on The Famine in the Central Provinces in 1896 and 1897. Nagpur, 1898. (j. s. Co.) Centralia, a city of Marion comity, Illinois, U.S.A., situated south of the centre of the state, on the Illinois Central railway and three smaller railways, at an altitude of 490 feet. It contains works of the Illinois Central railway, coal-mines and iron-works. Population (1880), 3621 ; (1890), 4763; (1900), 6721, of whom 57P were foreign-born and 418 were negroes. Centuripe, formerly Centorbi, a town of Sicily, Italy, in the province of Catania, 32 miles N.W. from Catania (28 miles by rail to Catenanuova ; thence 4 miles by road). It stands on a cliff (2307 ft.) overlooking the valley of the Simeto, and carries on sulphur-mining and flour-milling. The ancient Centoripa, it was a town of considerable importance both in Sikelian and in Roman times, but was S. II.— 8i