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of Ceylon. London, 1870.—Dr. Copleston, Bishop of Colombo. Kanem (east and north) have by international .agreements Buddhism, Primitive and Present, in Magadha and in Ceylon. fallen to the spheres of Great Britain, France, and GerLondon, 1892. (j- E-) many, the partition taking no account of former boundaries. Chabrier, Alexis Emmanuel (1841 1894), European influence had, before 1900, scarcely reached the French composer, was born at Ambert on 18th January lake, but the power of Rabah, usurping sultan of Bornu, 1841. At first he only cultivated music as an amateur, was in that year finally broken by his defeat by the and it was not until 1879 that he threw up an administra- French. One of the long-established trade routes across tive appointment in order to devote himself entirely to the the Sahara—that from Tripoli to Kuka in Bornu—strikes art. He had two years previously written an opera, bouffe the lake at its north-west corner, but this has lost much entitled Iffitoile, which was performed at the Bouffes of its former importance. Communication from Algeria Parisiens. In 1881 he was appointed chorus-master of to the lake vid Air was, after repeated failures, opened by the concerts then recently established by Lamoureux. Two M. Foureau in 1899-1900, while Lieut. Joalland, member years later he composed the brilliant orchestral rhapsody of the expedition originally entrusted to Capts. Youlet and entitled Espana,, the themes of which he had jotted Chanoine, also reached the lake from the Middle Niger, down when travelling in Spain. His opera Gwendoline continuing his journey round the north end to Kanem. See Fottreatj, in Geographical Journal, February 1901 ; Joalwas brought out at Brussels on 10th April 1886, with considerable success, and was given later at the Paris land, in La Geographic, June 1901. Chadwick, Sir Edwin ^1800-1890), was born Grand Opera. The following year 1887, Le Roi malgre lui, an opera of a lighter description, was produced in at Longsight, near Manchester, in 1800. Called to the Paris at the Opera Comique, its run being interrupted by bar without any independent means, he sought to support the terrible fire by which this theatre was destroyed. himself by literary work, and his essays in the Westminster His last opera, Briseis, was left unfinished, and performed Review (mainly on different methods of applying scientific in a fragmentary condition at the Paris Opera, after the knowledge to the business of government) introduced him composer’s death in Paris on the 13th September 1894. to the notice of Jeremy Bentham, who engaged him as a Chabrier was also the author of a set of piano pieces literary assistant and left him a handsome legacy. In entitled Pieces Pittoresques, Vaises Romantiques, for two 1832 he was employed by the Royal Commission appointed pianos, a fantasia for horn and piano, &c. His musical to inquire into the operation of the poor laws, and in 1833 tendencies were very modern, and his great admiration he was made a full member of that body. In conjunction for Wagner asserted itself in Gwendoline, a work which, with Nassau Senior he drafted the celebrated report of in spite of inequalities due to want of experience, is 1834 which procured the reform of the old poor law. His animated by a high artistic ideal, is poetically conceived, special contribution was the institution of the union as the and evinces considerable harmonic originality, besides a area of administration. He favoured, however, a much thorough mastery over the treatment of the orchestra. more centralized system of administration than was The characteristics of Le Roi malgre lui have been well adopted, and he never ceased to complain that the reform summed up by M. Joncieres when he alludes to “cette verve of 1834 was fatally marred by the rejection of his views, inepuisable, ces rythmes endiables, cette exuberancedegaiete which contemplated the management of poor-law relief by et de vigueur, h laquelle venait se joindre la note melan- salaried officers controlled from a central board, the boards colique et emue.” Chabrier’s premature death prevented of guardians acting merely as inspectors. In 1834 he was appointed secretary to the Poor Law Commissioners. him from giving the full measure of his worth, (a. He.) Finding himself unable to administer in accordance with ChaCO, a territory in the north of the Argentine Re- his own views an Act of which he was largely the author, public, bounded on the N. by the territory of Formosa, his relations with his official chiefs became much strained, from which it is separated by the Rio Bermejo, on the S. and the disagreement led, among other causes, to the disby Santiago del Estero and Santa Fe, on the E. by Para- solution of the Poor Law Commission in 1846. Chadguay and Corrientes, and on the W. by Santiago del wick’s chief contribution to political controversy was his Estero and Salta. The official area at the census of 1895 constant advocacy of entrusting certain departments of comprised 52,741 square miles, with a population of local affairs to trained and selected experts, instead of to 10,422. It is divided into five departments. The capital, representatives elected on the principle of local self-governResistencia, on the Parand, has a population of 3000. In ment. While still officially connected with the poor law 1895 the territory had 620 farms—11,214 acres planted he had taken up the question of sanitation in conjunction in cereals, 83,952 head of cattle, 7671 head of sheep, and with Dr Southwood Smith, and their joint labours produced 5408 horses. a most salutary improvement in the public health. His Chad, a large lake of northern Central Africa, of report on “The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring very variable extent, generally shallow, and containing Population” (1842) is a valuable historical document. many islands. It is fed principally by the Shari, coming He was a commissioner of the Board of Health from its from the south-east, but in the rains a considerable body establishment in 1848 to its abolition in 1854, when he of water is brought down by the Waube from the west. retired upon a pension, and occupied the remainder of The lake has no proper outlet, but at high water the surplus his life in voluntary contributions to sanitary and econofloods the swampy valley of the Bahr-el-Ghazal on the mical questions. He died on 6th July 1890. He had south-east; it does not, if recent accounts are to be trusted, been made K.C.B. in 1889. The best account of his reach the depression to the north-east known as Bodele, opinions is The Health of Nations (188/), which is as was supposed by Nachtigal. In 1897 the southern practically a biography dictated by himself to the late part of the lake was for the first time navigated by a Sir B. W. Richardson. steamer, which had been brought from the south and See also a volume on The Evils of Disunity in Central and Local launched on the Shari by the French expedition under Administration . . . and the New Centralisation for the People, by Gentil. Lake Chad lies on the borderland between the Edwin Chadwick (1885). Chaffarinas, a Spanish station in a group of wooded regions of the Sudan on the south and the arid steppes which merge into the Sahara on the north. Its islands of the same name, on the north coast of Morocco, shores are generally devoid of trees. The native sultanates near the Algerian frontier, 24 miles to the north of Cape of Bornu (south and west of the lake) and Wadai and del Agna. The largest of "these isles, Del Congreso, is