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rocky and hilly. It has a watch-house on the coast nearest London; but he lacked the suppleness and command of to Morocco. The island of Isabella II. contains several temper necessary to a successful diplomatist. He resigned batteries, barracks, and a penal convict settlement. For in 1882, and in February 1883 became minister of foreign years the Spanish Government has been preparing works, affairs in the Jules Ferry Cabinet, but retired in November breakwaters to unite this island with that of El Key, with of the same year. In 1890 he was elected vice-president a view to enclose a deep and already sheltered anchorage. of the Senate, and in 1893 succeeded Jules Ferry as its This roadstead even now can afford a safe refuge for 40 president. His influence over that body was largely due large vessels and many of light draught. The ChaffarinaSj to his clear and reasoned eloquence, which placed him at which are the Presinsulce of the Romans and the Zaferin the head of contemporary French orators. In 1893 he of the Arabs, were occupied by Spain in 1848. The also became a member of the French Academy. He dispopulation was 596 in 1897, including troops. tinguished himself by the vigour with which he upheld ChagOS, a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean dis- the Senate against the encroachments of the Chamber, but posed in circular form round the Chagos bank, in 5° 30' in 1895 failing health forced him to resign, and he died in to 6 J 30' N. and 71° 30' to 72° 30' E., separated from the Paris on 26th October 1896. He published a translation Maldives by a deep channel 300 miles wide. The atolls of Ritter’s History of Philosophy (1861) ; La philosophic on the south and east side of the bank, which has a cir- individualiste: etude sur Guillaume de Humboldt (1864); cumference of about 270 miles, have disappeared through and an edition of the works of Madame d’Epinay (1869). subsidence; a few—Egmont, Danger, Eagle, and Three In 1897 appeared (Euvres oratoires de Challemel-Lacour Brothers—still remain on the east side, but most of the . . . avec une introduction et des notices par Joseph (h. sy.) population (700 in 1900) is centred on Diego Garcia, Reinach. which lies on the south-east side, and is nearly 13 miles Chalon-Sur-Saone, chief town of arrondisselong by 6 wide. The lagoon, which is enclosed by two ment, department of Sa6ne-et-Loire, France, 46 miles coral barriers and accessible to the largest vessels on the N. of Macon, on railway from Paris to Lyon. It has north side, forms one of the finest harbours in the world, manufactures of machinery, vinegar, oil-refining, and iron and affords every facility for establishing repairing docks, and copper founding. In the square opposite the Palais victualling and coaling stations. The group, which has de Justice is a fountain erected in memory of the Thevenin a total land area of 76 square miles, is dependent for family, to whom the town is indebted for its water-supply. administrative purposes on Mauritius, and is regularly The ancient hospital in the St Laurent suburb has been visited by vessels from that colony. The only product is rebuilt. Population (1881), 19,864; (1901), 29,058. cocoa-nut oil, of which about 4800 hectolitres are annually Chdlons-Slir-Marne, chief town of departexported. Since 1791 this industry has been in the hands ment Marne, France, 107 miles E. of Paris by rail. The of French Creoles from Mauritius. town has become a great centre for the manufacture of beer, in part replacing that of wine. One of the large Chaidam. See Tsaidam. breweries occupies a series of galleries in the limestone Chalcedon, now Kadikeui, on the shore of the Bosphorus, south of Scutari. Kadikeui forms the tenth rock originally excavated for the storage of wine. These “ Cercle ” of the municipality of Constantinople, and has galleries, with a total length of 6 miles, are now served a population of about 33,000, of whom 8000 are Moslems. by lines of railway which convey the beer directly to the There are a large British colony with a church, Greek station. The woollen industry has declined. Chalons is and Armenian churches and schools, and a training college the headquarters of the 6th army corps. The port traffic on the Marne canal in 1899 was 47,374 tons. Population for Roman Catholic Armenians. (1881), 17,298; (1901), 21,487. Challemel - Lac our, Paul Amand Chamba, a native state of India, within the Punjab, (1827-1896), French statesman, was born at Avranches on 19th May 1827. After passing through the $cole amid the Himalayas. It has an area of 3126 square miles. normale superieure, he became professor of philosophy In 1881 the population was 115,773; in 1891 it was successively at Pau and at Limoges. The coup d’etat of 124,032, giving an average density of 40 persons per 1851 caused his expulsion from France for his republican square mile ; and in 1901 it was 128,005. The estimated opinions. He travelled on the Continent, and in 1856 gross revenue is Rs. 3,50,000; the tribute, Rs.5000; the settled down as professor of French literature at the military force, 400. The sanitarium of Dalhousie, though Polytechnic of Zurich. The amnesty of 1859 enabled him within the state, is attached to the district of Gurdaspur. to return to France, but a projected course of lectures was Chamberlain, Joseph, (1836 ), British immediately suppressed. He now supported himself by statesman, third son of Joseph Chamberlain, Master of the his pen, and became a regular contributor to the reviews. Cordwainers’ Company, was born at Camberwell Grove, On the fall of the second empire in 1870 the Government London, on 8th July 1836. His father was a well-to-do of National Defence appointed him prefect of the depart- man of business, a Unitarian in religion and a Liberal in ment of the Rhone, in which capacity he had to suppress politics. Young Chamberlain was educated at Canonbury the Communist rising at Lyons. Resigning his post in from 1845 to 1850, and at University College School, the following year, he was in 1872 elected to the National London, from 1850 to 1852. After two years in his Assembly, and in 1876 to the Senate. He sat at first on father’s office in London, he was sent to Birmingham to the Extreme Left; but his philosophic and critical tem- join his cousin Joseph Nettlefold in a screw business in perament was not in harmony with the recklessness of which his father had an interest; and by degrees, largely French Radicalism, and his attitude towards political owing to his own intelligent management, this business questions underwent a steady modification, till the close became very successful. “Nettlefold and Chamberlain” of his life saw him the foremost representative of moderate employed new methods of attracting customers, and republicanism. During Gambetta’s lifetime, however, judiciously amalgamated rival firms with their own so as to Challemel-Lacour was one of his warmest supporters, and reduce competition, with the result that in 1874, after he was for a time editor of Gambetta’s organ, the twenty-two years of commercial life, Mr Chamberlain was Republique Franqaise. In 1879 he was appointed French able to retire with an ample fortune. Meanwhile he had in ambassador at Berne, and in 1880 was transferred to 1861 married his first wife, Miss Harriet Kenrick (she died