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654

CHANGRA—CHANNEL

TUNNEL

his double command, and, at the coup d'etat in December, 1888, or 5 per cent, more than is recorded at the sunniest was arrested and sent to Mazas, until his banishment from spot on the south coast of England; and 1980 hours for France by the decree of the 9th January 1852. He re- the years since 1888. St Helier possesses good educational facilities in a turned to France after the general amnesty^ and resided ladies’ college, a high school for girls, and Victoria College, on his estate in the department of Saone-et-Loire. During the Franco-Prussian war he served with the emperor of and numerous private schools; also a public library (1736), the French, and afterwards with Bazaine, until he became which contains some Elzevirs, Plantins, &c.,^and the Beresa prisoner of war on the capitulation of Metz. At the ford library. Since its formation in 1873 the Societe armistice he returned to Paris, and in 1871 was elected to the Jersaise has excavated and examined most of the remainNational Assembly by four departments, and sat for the ing megalithic monuments of the island known as hougues Somme. He took an active part in politics, and served on or pouguelayes. The harbour (40 acres) has 30 feet of the committee which elaborated the monarchical constitu- water at ordinary spring tides, but is dry at low water. tion, and, when the comte de Chambord refused the com- Prynne, the Puritan divine, was imprisoned in the (Norpromise, moved the resolution to extend the executive man) Orgueil Castle from 1637 to 1640. The population of Jersey was 52,445 in 1881, 54,518 power for ten years to Marshal MacMahon. He was in 1891 (showing a density of 1211 inhabitants to the elected a life senator in 1875. He died in Paris on 14th February 1877, the funeral rites being celebrated at the square mile), and 52,796 in 1901. In 1891 the birthrate was 25-1; the death-rate, 20’9. In 1899 the ports church of the Invalides. (R- H- v-) of Jersey and Guernsey were cleared by 413 vessels of Changra, or Kankari (ancient Gangra, and 52,227 tons; Jersey alone owned 95 vessels of 5532 tons, Germanicopolis), altitude 2500 feet, the chief town of a also 126 fishing boats of 391 tons. sanjak of the Kastamiiri vildyet in Asia Minor, situated Guernsey and its Dependent Islands—Agriculture. in a rich, well-watered valley. The ground is impregnated Between 1880 and 1899 the area under crops increased with salt, and the town is unhealthy. Population 13,000, from 11,123 acres, or 56‘7 per cent, of the total area, to of whom 500 are Christians. Gangra, the capital of the 11,663, or 59-5 per cent. The largest area was occupied kingdom of Deiotarus, son of Castor, was taken into the by>pasture and hay—namely, 6055 acres, or 30'8 per cent., Roman province of Galatia in 7 B.c., and was later the in 1880, and 7162 acres, or 36'5 per cent., in 1899, or an metropolitan see of Paphlagonia. increase of 1107 acres. Green crops covered 3256 acres, Channel Islands, a group of islands in the or 16'6 per cent., in 1880, and 2922, or 14'9 per cent., English Channel, consisting of Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, in 1899. The area under orchards and market gardens Sark, Herm, and one or two smaller islets which lie in decreased from 683 acres in 1880 to 480 acres in 1899. the bay of St Michael, off the coast of Normandy, 15 miles The principal crops are oats, potatoes (741 acres in 1899), W. from Cotentin and 88 miles S. by E. from Portland wheat, barley, mangold, and tares. Between 1880 and Bill. Their total area is about 75 square miles, of which 1899 there was a slight increase in the number of horses, 45 square miles belong to Jersey, 25 to Guernsey, and 3 a slight decrease in cattle and pigs, and a large decrease to Alderney. Officially they are comprised in the English (from 1013 to 328) in sheep; the figures for the latter county of Hampshire and the diocese of Winchester. The year being 1645 horses, 7172 cattle (of which 3609 were islands of Alderney, Sark, Herm, and others are adminis- cows and heifers in milk or in calf), and 4741 pigs. The total area farmed by tenants amounted to 5050 acres in tratively counted as part of Guernsey. Jersey—Agriculture.—Between 1880 and 1899 the 1899, and the area farmed by the owners to 6613 acres. Climate.—The mean temperature of February, computed area of land under crops increased from 18,950 acres (65‘9 per cent, of total area) to 19,361 acres (07‘4 per cent.). from a period of 40 years, is 43 Fahr., and of July, 60 6 . The largest area was occupied by pasture and meadow land, The rainfall gives an annual mean of 37^ inches. The namely, 8446 acres, or 29'4 per cent, of the total, in 1880, amount of sunshine annually is about 2 per cent, less than and 8253, or 28’7 per cent., in 1899 ; and potatoes, 4671 in Jersey, or about 1890 hours in the year. Population, &c.—Guernsey possesses two libraries, one acres, or 16-9 per cent., in 1880, and 8484 acres, or 29'5 per cent., in 1899. All the cereals together (86-4 per with a museum attached; also a ladies’ college and a cent, being wheat) only covered 2920 acres, or 10‘1 per lunatic asylum. The harbour of St Peter Port is 14 to cent., in 1880; and 1868 acres, or 6-7 per cent., in 1899 42 feet deep at ordinary spring tides, and 6 to 32 feet at (58*6 per cent, being wheat). Turnips, mangold, and ordinary neap tides, and possesses a floating dock and other green crops are also grown in small quantities. The shipbuilding yards. In 1899 Guernsey owned 60 vessels area devoted to orchards and market gardens (tomatoes, &c.) of 6526 tons and 99 fishing boats of 349 tons. Victor was 1569 acres in 1880 and 1209 acres in 1899. The live- Hugo spent several years of exile-in Guernsey, the house stock statistics show a slight increase in the numbers of which he occupied in St Peter Port being still in possession horses, cattle, and pigs in 1899 as compared with 1880, but of his family. The population of Guernsey increased from a slight decrease in sheep. The figures for the year 1899 32,600 in 1881 to 35,243 in 1891 (showing a density were 2447 horses, 12,559 cattle (of which 6964 were of 1410 inhabitants to the square mile), and 40,477 m cows or heifers in milk or in calf), 298 sheep, and 7991 1901. The birth-rate in 1891 was 23‘3 ; the death-rate, pigs. The area farmed by tenant occupiers increased from 19-7.’ Population of Alderney, Sark, &e., 2657 in 1881, 11,289 acres in 1890 to 12,934 acres in 1899; and the 2473 in 1891, and 2568 in 1901. See G. G. Chisholm in Scot. Geog. Mag. 1886. area farmed by owners decreased from 8677 acres in 1890 to 6427 acres in 1899. Channel Tunnel. —The scheme for uniting Climate. —According to Rev. H. W. Yorke,1 the annual England with France by means of a tunnel was first put mean temperature for a period of 20 years was 51Y upon a practical basis in 1856 by an eminent French Fahr., the mean of January 42-1° and of August 63°. engineer, M. Thome de Gamoud. His plans were exhibited The mean temperature of the sea-water ranges from 40 in at the Universal Exhibition of 1867. At the same time December to 60° in August, The annual mean rainfall English engineers were also working at the same idea. (25 years) is 34'2 inches. The average amount of sun- Mr Low conceived the idea of connecting the railway shine was 1930 hours annually for the 15 years ending systems of France and England, and selected on the English shore Fan Hole (see D on plan), a spot about 1 Quarterly Joum. of Meteorological Soc., No. 111. 1899.