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of art. By a public act in 1886 the due gave the park and chateau with its superb collections to the Institute of France, in trust for the nation, reserving to himself only a life interest. He died in 1897, and the Institute then acquired full possession of the property. Population of town (1881), 3896 ; (1896), 3787 ; (comm.), 4093; (1901), 4791. Chanzy, Antoine Eugene Alfred (18231883), French general, was born at Nouart, Ardennes, on 18th March 1823. The son of a cavalry officer, he was educated at the Naval School at Brest, but enlisted in the artillery, and subsequently passing through St Cyr, was commissioned in the Zouaves in 1843. He saw a good deal of fighting in Algeria, and was promoted captain in 1851 (Legion of Honour). As major of the 23rd Foot he served in the Lombardy campaign of 1859, and was present at Magenta and Solferino. He took part in the Syrian campaign of 1860 as a lieut.colonel (Officer, Legion of Honour); and as colonel commanded the 48th regiment at Borne in 1864. He returned to Algeria" as general of brigade, assisted to quell the Arab insurrection, and commanded the subdivisions of Bel Abbes and Tlemcen in 1868 (Commander, Legion of Honour). Although he had acquired some professional reputation, he was in bad odour at the War Office on account of suspected contributions to the press, and of the publication of some jobbery in the supply of stores which he had discovered. At the outbreak of the Franco-German war he was curtly refused a brigade command ; but, after the revolution, the government of national defence made him a general of division and gave him command of the 16th corps of the army of the Loire, with which he took a brilliant part in the battles of Coulmiers and Patay. On 5th December 1870 he was made commander-in-chief of the 2nd army of the Loire. He fought stubbornly against Yon der Tann, the grand-duke of Mecklenburg, and the Bed Prince, and showed conspicuous ability and military talent in the fighting from Beaugency to the Loire (6th to 11th December), in his retreat to Le Mans, where he re-formed his army in the final struggle in January, and, after the defeat of Le Mans, in the six days’ fight in retiring to Laval behind the Mayenne to reconstruct his shattered forces, when the armistice stopped further operations. As Gambetta was the soul, Chanzy was the strong right arm of French resistance to the invader. He was made a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour for his services. He represented the Ardennes in the National Assembly, and narrowly escaped capture by the Communists. In 1872 he became a member of the Committee of Defence and commander of the 7th army corps, and in 1873 was appointed governor of Algeria, where he remained for six years. In 1875 he was elected a life senator, in 1878 he received the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, and in 1879, without his consent, he was nominated for the presidency of the Bepublic, and received a third of the total votes. For two years he was ambassador at St Petersburg. He died suddenly at Chalons-sur-Marne, on 4th January 1883, only a few days after Gambetta, and his remains received a State funeral. He was the author of Za deuxieme armee de la Loire, published in 1872. (n. h. v.) Chapra, or Chupra, a town of British India, the administrative headquarters of Saran district in the Behar province of Bengal, on the left bank of the river Gogra, just above its confluence with the Ganges; with a railway station on the Bengal and North-Western line towards Oudh. Population (1881), 51,670; (1891), 57,352; (1901), 45,392, showing a decrease of 21 per cent. There are a Government high school, a German

Lutheran mission, three printing-presses, and a public library endowed by the late Maharaja of Hatwa. Chapra is the centre of trade in indigo and saltpetre, and conducts a large business by water as well as by rail. Charcot, Jean Martin (1825-1893), French physician, was born in Paris on 29th November 1825. In 1853 he graduated as M.D. of Paris University, and three years later was appointed physician of the Central Hospital Bureau. In 1860 he became a professor in the University, and in 1862 began that famous connexion with the Salpetriere which lasted to the end of his life. He was elected to the Academy of Medicine in 1873, and ten years afterwards became a member of the Institute. His death occurred suddenly on 16th August 1893 at Morvan, where he had gone for a holiday. Charcot, who was a good linguist and well acquainted with the literature of his own as well as of other countries, excelled as a clinical observer and a pathologist. His work at the Salpetriere exerted a great influence on the development of the science of neurology, and his classical Legons sur les maladies du systeme nerveux, the first series of which was published in 1873, represents an enormous advance in the knowledge and discrimination of nervous diseases. He also devoted much attention to the study of obscure morbid conditions like hysteria, especially in relation to hypnotism; indeed, it is in connexion with his investigation into the phenomena and results of the latter that his name is popularly known. In addition to his labours on neurological and even physiological problems he made many contributions to other branches of medicine, his published works dealing, among other topics, with liver and kidney diseases, gout, and pulmonary phthisis. As a teacher he was remarkably successful, and always commanded an enthusiastic band of followers. Chard, a municipal borough (extended 1892) and market town in the Southern parliamentary division of Somersetshire, England, 13 miles S.S.E. of Taunton by rail. It has manufactures of linen collars and lace. Population of borough (70 acres) (1881), 2411 ; (1891), 2575; (1891) on the extended area (403 acres), 4315; (1901), 4437. Charente, a department in the west of France, nowhere rising to any remarkable elevation, watered by the Charente. Area, 2306 square miles, with 29 cantons and 426 communes. The population was 366,408 in 1886, but only 344,376 in 1901. In 1899 the births were 6610, of which 343 were illegitimate ; the deaths, 7144 ; and the marriages, 2753. Angouleme, the capital, had a population of 37,650 in 1901. In 1896 there were 921 schools with 48,000 pupils, the illiterate composing 7 per cent, of the population. The area under cultivation in 1896 comprised 1,307,234 acres, of which 845,130 acres were plough-land and 44,480 acres in vines. In 1899 the wheat crop gave a return of the value of £1,074,000. The green crop and grass lands, in which Charente takes a prominent place among the departments of France, produced nearly £1,000,000 in value. The yield of the vineyards amounted to the value of £438,000. Cognac is the centre of the distillation of brandy, to which the town gives its name, the annual production during the years 1886-1896 averaging 396,168 gallons. The live stock in 1899 included 31,320 horses, 92,960 cattle, 258,100 sheep, and 97,500 pigs. The paper made at Angouleme is much esteemed. Charente Inf^rieure, a department in the west of France, bordering on the Atlantic Ocean and watered by the Charente. Area, 2792 square miles, with 40 cantons and 480 communes. The population had dropped to 462,803 in 1886 and to 446,294 in 1901. Births in 1899, 8227, of which 393 illegitimate ; deaths, 9136 ; marriages, 3273. La Rochelle, the capital, had a population in 1901 of 31,318. The department had in 1896, 1032 schools, with 57,000 pupils, and 3 per cent, of the population was illiterate. The area under cultivation in 1896 comprised 1,492,570 acres, 968,698 acres of which were plough-land and 79,076 acres in vines. S. II. — 83