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CHARITY AND CHARITIES 662 the rites of host and guest. The guest received as a assembly or ecclesia. Probably the attendance at it varied from by only shelter and fire. Usually he dined with a few hundred to 5000 persons. In 395 b.c. the payment for right host the first day, and if afterwards he was stranxer attendance was fixed at 3 obols, or little more than 4£d. a day— the provisions were supplied to him. There were for the system of payment had probably been introduced a lew fed, guest chambers {xenon) or small guest houses comyears before (cf. Daremberg, Did. des Antiq.). A juror or dikast large isolated on the right or left of the principal house ; would receive the same sum for attendance, and the courts or pletely and here the guest was lodged. (2) There were also e.g at iuries would often consist of 500 persons. If the estimate (Bbckh Hieropolis (Prof. W. M. Ramsay’s Phrygia, 11. 9/), brotherhoods 'Public Economy of Athens, Eng. trans., pp. 109, 117) holds good of hospitality {xenoi tekmoreioi, bearers of the sign), which made that in the age of Demosthenes (384-323 B.C.) the member of a hospitality and had a common chest and Apollo as their poor family of four free persons could live (including rent) on tutelary god.a duty, There were inns or resting-places {katagogion) about 3'3d. or between 2 and 3 obols a day, the pay of the citizen for strangers at(3)temples iii. 68 ; Plato, Laws, 953a) and attending the assembly or the court would at least cover the places of resort {lesche) at (Thuc. or near the temples for the entertainexpenses of subsistence. On the other hand, it would be less ment of strangers — for instance, a temple of Asklepios at than the pay of a day labourer, which was probably about 4 obols Epidaurus (Pausanias, ii. 174); andatPausanias argues that they or 6d. a day. In any case many citizens—they numbered in all were common throughout the country. Probably also a,t the about 20,000—in return for their participation in political duties temples hospitable provision was made for strangers. The would receive considerable pecuniary assistance. Attending a at present is not perhaps sufficiently complete, but, so evidence far as it creat public festival also, the citizen would receive 2 obols or 3d. it tends to the conclusion that in pre-Christian times a day during the festival days ; and there were besides frequent goes, was provided to passers-by and strangers in the public sacrifices, with the meal or feast which accompanied them. hosp'itality buildings, as later it was furnished in the monasteries and But besides this there were confiscations of private property, temple (3) There were also in towns houses for strangers which produced a surplus revenue divisible among the poorer churches. provided at the public cost. This was so at Megara ; citizens. (Some hold that there were confiscations in other Greek {xenon) in Crete strangers had a place at the public meals and a states, but not in Athens.) In these circumstances it is not to be and Xenophon suggested that it would be profitable tor wondered that men like Isocrates should regret that the influence dormitory. the Athenian state to establish inns for traders {katagogia of the Areopagus, the old court of morals and justice m Athens, demosia) at Athens. Thus, apart from the official hospitality of had disappeared, for it “maintained a sort of censorial police the proxenus or “consul,” who had charge ot the anans o^ over the lives and habits of the citizens ; and it professed to foreigners, and the hospitality which was shown to persons ol enforce a tutelary and paternal discipline, beyond that which the distinction by states or private individuals, there was in Greece a strict letter of the law could mark out, over the indolent, the large provision for strangers, wayfarers, and vagrants based on prodigal, the undutiful, and the deserters of old rite and custom sentiment of hospitality. Among the Romans (6) In addition to public emoluments and relief there was much the charitable customs of private and public hospitality prevailed ; and private liberality and charity. Many expensive public services similar throughout the empire the older system was altered, probably were undertaken honorarily by the citizens under a kind of civic very slowly. In Christian times (cf. Ramsay above). Pa,gan compulsion. Thus in a trial about 425 B.c (Lysias, Or. 19. 5/) temples were (about a.d. 408) utilized for other purposes, includa citizen submitted evidence that his father expended more ing that of hospitality to strangers. than £2000 during his life in paying the expenses of choruses Round, the temples, at first probably village temples, at festivals, fitting out seven triremes for the navy, and meeting levies of income tax to meet emergencies. Besides this he had the organization of medical relief grew up. Primitive helped poor citizens by portioning their daughters and sisters, medicine is connected with dreams, worship, and Jhe sjck had ransomed some, and paid the funeral expenses of others (cf. for other instances Plutarch s Cimon, Theophras. Eth., and liturgical “ pollution,” punishment and penitence, and an experimental practice. Finally, systematic (7) There were also mutual help societies {eranoi). Those for observation and science (with no knowledge of chemistry relief would appear to have been loan societies (cf. Theop . and little of physiology) assert themselves, and a secular EthA one of whose members would beat up contributions to administration is created by the side of the older religious help a friend, who would afterwards repay the advance. The criticisms of Aristotle (284-322 b.c.) suggest the direction organization. to which he looked for reform. He {Pol. 1320a) passes a very Sickness among primitive races is conceived to be a material unfavourable judgment on the distribution of public money to substance to be extracted, or an evil spirit to be driven away by the poorer citizens. The demagogues (he does not speak of Athens incantation. Religion and medicine are thus at the beginning particularly) distributed the surplus revenues to the poor, who almost one and the same thing. In Anatolia, in the groups oi received them all at the same time ; and then they were in want villages (cf. Ramsay as above, i. 101) under the theocratic acrain. It was only, he argued, like pouring water through a government of a central hieron or temple, the god, Men Karou, sieve It were better to see to it that the greater number were was the physician and saviour {soter and sozon) of his people. not so entirely destitute, for the depravity of a democratic govern- Priests, prophets, and physicians were his ministers. He ment was due to this. The problem was to contrive how plenty punished wrongdoing by diseases which he taught the penitent (euporia, not poverty, aporia) should become permanent. His to cure. So elsewhere pollution, physical or moral, was chastened proposals are adequate aid and voluntary charity. Public disease and loss of property or children, and further ills were relief should, he urges, be given in large amounts so as to help by by sacrifice and expiation and public warning. In tne people to acquire small farms or start in business, and the well- avoided and out of this phase of thought grew up schools of to-do {euporoi) should in the meantime subscribe to pay the poor temple in whose practice dreams and religious ritual retained for their attendance at the public assemblies (This proves, medicine, place The newer gods, Asklepios and Apollo, succeeded the indeed, how the payments had become poor relief.) He mentions aolder local divinities ; and the “sons” of Asklepios became a also how the Carthaginian notables divided the destitute amongst profession, and the temple with its adjacent buildings a kind of them and gave them the means of setting to work, and the hospital. There many temples of Asklepios m Greece and Tarentines {koina poiountes) shared their property with the poor. elsewhere, placedwere in high and salubrious positions. (The Rhodians also might be mentioned (Strabo, xiv. c. 652), amongst After ablution the generally patient offered sacrifices, repeating himself whom the well-to-do undertook the relief of the poor voluntarily.) the words of the hymn that was chanted. Then, when night The later word for charitable distribution was a sharing (komonia, came on, he slept in the temple. In the early dawn he was to Ed Rom. xv. 26), which would seem to indicate that after dream “ the heavenly dream ” which would suggest his cure ; but Aristotle’s time popular thought had turned in that direction. if he did not dream, relations and others—officials at temple But the chief service rendered by Anstotle-a service which —might dream for him. At dawn the priests or sons ofthe covered indeed the whole ground of social progress-was to show came into the temple and visited the sick, so that, in aAsklepios kind o that unless the purpose of civil and social life was caiefully con- drama, where reality and appearance seemed to meet, the patients sidered and clearly realized by those who desired to improve its believed that they saw the god himself. The next morning the condition.', no change for the better could result from individual prescription and treatment were settled. At hand in the inn or or associated action. guest chambers of the temple the patient could remain, sleeping Two forms of charity have still to be mentioned: again in the temple, if necessary, and carrying out the required In the temple were votive tablets of cases, popular and charity to the stranger and to the sick It will be con- regimen. awe-inspiring, and records and prescriptions, which later found venient to consider both in relation to the whole classical their way into the medical works of Galen and others. _ At the temple of Asklepios at Epidaurus was an inn {katagogion) with ^ With the growth of towns the administration of hos- four courts and colonnades, and in all 160 rooms. (Cf. Tm.sainas, ii. 171 ; and Report, Archoeol. in Greece, R. C. Bosanquet, 1899, pitality was elaborated. 1900.) (1) There was hospitality between members of families bound