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attempting to centralize the religion of Babylonia in the temple of Merodach at Babylon, and while he had thus alienated the local priesthoods the military party despised him on account of his antiquarian tastes. He seems to have left the defence of his kingdom to others, occupying himself with the more congenial work of excavating the foundation records of the temples and determining the dates of their builders. The invasion of Babylonia by Cyrus was doubtless facilitated by the existence of a disaffected party in the state, as well as by the presence of foreign exiles like the Jews, who had been planted in the midst of the country. One of the first acts of Cyrus Rest ora- accordingly was to allow these exiles to return non of to their own homes, carrying with them the Jewish images of their gods and their sacred vessels. exiles. q'Pg permission to do so was embodied in a proclamation, in which the conqueror endeavoured to justify his claim to the Babylonian throne. The feeling was still strong that none had a right to rule over Western Asia until he had been consecrated to the. office by Bel and his priests; and from henceforth, accordingly, Cyrus assumed the imperial title of “ king of Babylon.” A year before his death, in 529 b.c., he associated his son Cambyses in the government, making him king of Babylon, while he reserved for himself the fuller title of “ king of the (other) provinces” of the empire. It was only when Darius Hystaspis, the representative of the Aryan race and the Zoroastrian religion, had re-conquered the empire of Cyrus, that the old tradition was broken and the claim of Babylon to confer legitimacy on the rulers of Western Asia ceased to be acknowledged. Darius, in fact, entered Babylon as a conqueror; after the murder of the Magian it had recovered its independence under Nidinta-Bel, who took the name of Nebuchadrezzar III., and reigned from October 521 b.c. to August 520 b.c., when the Persians took it by storm. A few years later, probably 514 b.c., Babylon again revolted under the Armenian Arakha; on this occasion, after its capture by the Persians, the walls were partly destroyed. E-Sagila, the great temple of Bel, however, still continued to be kept in repair, and to be a centre of Babylonian patriotism, until at last the foundation of Seleucia diverted the population to the new capital of Babylonia, and the ruins of the old city became a quarry for the builders of the new seat of government.1 1 The following is a list of the dynasties and kings of Babylonia and Assyria so far as they are known at present:— The Babylonian Dynasties from cir. 2700 B.c. :— Dynasty of Sisku (?) for 368 years. Second Dynasty of Ur:— Ur-Gur, cir. 2700 b.c. 2174 b.c. Dungi I. (suzerain of Gudea Anman, 60 years. of Lagas). Ki-Nigas, 56 years. Kirgal-daramas, 50 years. Damki-ilisu, 26 years. A-dara-kalama, 28 years. Iskipal, 15 years. Akurduana, 26 years. Sussi, 24 years. Melamma-kurkurra, 8 years. Gul-ki[sar], 55 years. Ea-ga[mil], 20 years. Kassite Dynasty of 36 kings for Third Dynasty of Ur :— 576 years 9 months. Dungi II., more than 51 years. Bur-Sin II., more than 12 years. 1806 B.c. Gimil-Siu, more than 9 years. Gandis, 16 years. Ine-Sin. Agum-sipak, 22 years. First Dynasty of Babylon. Bitilyasi I., 22 years. 2460 b.c. Ussi (?), 9 years. Sumu-abi, 14 years. Adu-metas. Sumu-la-ilu, 36 years. Tazzi-gurumas. Zabium, 14 years. Agum-kakrime. Abil-Sin, 18 years. Sin-muballidh, 20 years. Kara-indas. Khammurabi, 43 years. Kadasman - Bel (corresponded Samsu-iluna, 38 years. with Amon-hotep III. of Abesukh, 25 years. Egypt, 1430 b.c.). Ammi-ditana, 25 years. Kuri-galzu I. Ammi-zadoq, 21 years. Burna-buryas, his son. Samsu-ditana, 31 years. Kuri-galzu II., his son (?).



Babylonian religion and culture emanated from two centres—Nippur, with its temple of El-bl or Bel, in the north; and Eridu, with its cult of Ea, the god sources of of the water, on the shore of the Persian Gulf. Babylonian But the nature of the religious influence exercised religion. by the two cities differed greatly. From Nippur came a belief in the powers of night and darkness, exorcisms Kara-khardas. Kadasman-kharbe, his son Nazi-bugas, a usurper. Kuri-galzu III., son of Kadas. man-kharbe, 35 (?) years. Nazi - Maruttas, his son, 26 years. Kadasman-Turgu, his son, 17 years. Kadasman-buryas, 14 years. Kudur-Bel, 6 years. Sagarakti-buryas, his son, 13 years. Bitilyasu II., 8 years. Bel-sum-iddin, lA years. Hadad-sum-iddin, 6 years. Hadad-sum-uzur, 30 years (including the 7 years during which the Assyrian king Tiglath-Ninip occupied Babylon). Meli-sipak, 15 years. Merodach-baladan I., his son, 13 years. Zamama-sum-iddin, 1 year. Bel-sum-iddin, 3 years. Dynasty of I sin o/ll kings for 132i years. 1229 B.c. Merodach- .... 18 years.

B.C. Samas-mudammiq . cir. 920 Nebo-sum-iskun . cir. 900 Nebo-baladan . . cir. 880 Merodach-nadin-sumi cir. 860 Merodach-baladhsu-iqbi cir. 830 Bau-akhi-iddin . cir. 810 Probably two names missing. Nebo - sum - iskun, son of Dakuri. . . cir. 760 Nabonassar, 14 years . 747 Nebo-nadin-suma, his son, 2 years . . . 733 Nebo-sum-yukin, his son, 1 month 12 days . . 731 End of “ the 22nd dynasty.”

Dynasty of Sapi. B.C. Yukin-zera or Chinziros, 3 years . . . .730 Pulu (Pul or Poros), called Tiglath - pileser III. in Assyria, 2 years . .727 Ulula, called Shalmaneser IY. in Assyria . .725 Merodach - baladan II. the Chaldsean . . .721 Sargon of Assyria . .709 Sennacherib, his son . .705 Merodach - zakir - sumi, 1 month .... 702 Nebuchadrezzar I. Merodach - baladan III., 6 Bel-nadin-pal. months . . . .702 Merodach-nadin-akhi, 22 years. Bel-ebus of Babylon . .702 Merodach- . . . IJ years. Assur - nadin - sumi, son of Hadad-baladan, an usurper. Sennacherib . . .700 Merodach - sapik - zer - mati, 12 Nergal-yusezib . . . 694 years. Musezib-Merodach . . 693 Nabu-nadin, 8 years. Sennacherib destroys Babylon . . .689 Dynasty of the Sea-coast. Esar-haddon, his son . .681 1096 B.c. Samas-sum-yukin, his son . 668 Kandalanu (Kineladanos) . 648 Simbar-sipak, 18 years. Nabopolassar . . . 626 Ea-mukin-zeri, 5 months. Nabu - kudur - uzur (NebuKassu-nadin-akhi, 3 years. chadrezzar II.) . . 605 Dynasty of Bit-Bazi. Amil - Marduk (Evil - Mero1075 B.c. dach), his son . .562 E-Ulmas-sakin-sumi, 17 years. Nergal - sarra - uzur (Nergal-sharezer) . . . 560 Ninip-kudur-uzur I., 3 years. Labasi - Marduk, his son, 3 Silanirn-Suqamuna, 3 months. months.... 556 Dynasty of Elam. Nabu-nahid (Nabonidos) . 556 Cyrus conquers Babylon . 538 1055 b.c. Cambyses, his son . . 529 An Elamite, 6 years. Gomates, the Magian, 7 months . . . 521 Second Dynasty of Babylon. Nebuchadrezzar III., na1049 B.c. tive king . . . 521 Darius, son of Hystaspes . 520 Nebo-kin-abli, 36 years. Ninip - kudur - uzur II. (?) 8 Nebuchadrezzar IV., rebel king .... 514 months 12 days. Darius restored . . .513 Probably four names missing. Kings of Assyria. B.C. Bel - kap - kapu, “ founder of the Assur-bil-nisi-su . cir. 1450 monarchy. ” Buzur-Assur . . . 1440 Assur-nadin-akhe II. . 1420 Assur-sum-esir. Ninip-tuklat-Assur, his son (con- Assur-yuballidh, his son . 1400 . 1380 temporary with Kharbe-sipak Bel-nirari, his son . Pudilu (Pedael), his son . 1360 of Babylonia). Hadad-nirari I., his son . 1340 Shalmaneser I., his son Erba-Hadad. 1320 (built Calah) Assur-nadin-akhe I., his son. 1300 Tiglath-Ninip I., his son