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HARLESTON 690 CHARJUI — C Charities, by Amos G. Warner (1895). —Handwortcrbuch der 1880. On 26th March 1881 Prince Charles (Carol) was Utaatswissenschaften, Dr J. Conrad, &c., vol. ii. supplement. proclaimed king of Rumania, and was crowned with his Das Armenwesen in den Vevcinigten StacUen von Aviericciy Dr consort on the 23rd May following. From that time Francis G. Peabody (1897)-—Tlie Charities Review^ puFlislied monthly hy the New York Charity Organisation Society. he has pursued a successful career in home and foreign The Papers and Reports of the Boston and Baltimore societies. policy, and has raised the financial and military position France: La Bibliographie charitable, by Camille Granier of his country far beyond that of the other Balkan states, (1891).—La Chariti avant et depuis 1789, by P. Hubert while his appreciation of the fine arts has been shown by Valleroux. — Fascicules of the Conseil Superieur de 1’assistanee publique. — Revue d’Assistance, published by the Societe the formation of an important collection of paintings of all internationale pour Fetude des questions d’assistance. Germany: schools in his palaces at Sinaia and Bucarest. His Reports and Proceedings of the Deutsche Vereinfiir Armenpfiegeund consort, the Queen Elizabeth (Pauline Elizabeth Ottilie Wohlthdtigheit; Die Armenpflege, a practical handbook, by Dr E. Louise), widely known by her literary name “Carmen Munsterberg, 1897. Austria : Oesterreichs Wohlfarts-Einrich- Sylva,” was born 29th December 1843, being the daughter tungen, 1848-98 ; Dr Ernest Mischler, 1899. (c. s. L.) of Prince Hermann of Neuwied. She first met the future Charjui, town of Russia, Transcaspian territory, king of Rumania at Berlin in 1861, and was married to him 74 miles by rail S.W. of Bokhara, and 662 miles by rail 15th November 1869. Early distinguished by her excelfrom Krasnovodsk. It is a great entrepot for raw cotton. lence as a pianist, organist, and singer, she also showed conThere is a railway bridge across the Amu-Daria. siderable ability in painting and illuminating ; but a lively Charkhari, a native state of India, in the Bundel- poetic imagination has led her to the path of literature, khand agency. Area, 788 square miles ; population (1891), and more especially to poetry, folklore, and ballads. In 143,108; average density, 183 persons per square mile; addition to numerous original works, she has put into estimated revenue, Rs. 5,00,000. The chief, whose title literary form many of the legends current among the is maharaja, is a Rajput of the Bundela clan, descended Rumanian peasantry. In the Russo - Turkish war of from Chhatar Sal, the champion of the independence of 1877-78 she devoted herself to the care of the wounded, Bundelkhand in the 18th century. The town of Char- and founded the Order of Elizabeth (a gold cross on a blue khari is situated in 25° 44' N. lat. and i9 47 E. long., ribbon) to reward distinguished service in such work. She fostered the higher education of women in Rumania, about 40 miles W. of Banda. and established societies for various charitable objects. Charleroi, a town of Belgium, in the province of The following is the chronicle of her literary work, the Hainaut, 23 miles E. of Mons, on the Sambre, at an books marked with an asterisk being written in collaboraimportant junction of railways. In 1886 Socialist tion with Frau Mite Kremnitz :—1880, Sappho, Hammerexcesses led to sanguinary encounters with the forces of stein ; 1881, Sturme, Bumdnische Dichtungen (translaorder The output of coal still continues on an extensive tions); 1882, Leidens Erdengang, Jehovah, Ein Gehet, scale. Population (1880), 16,372 ; (1897), 23,480. Pensees June Peine, Die Hexe, Aus Zwei Welten * ; 1883, Charleroi, a borough of Washington county, Das Lehen meines Evaders, Aus Carmen Sylva’s Konigreich Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the Monongahela river and a (in two parts: I. Pelesch-Mdrchen; II. Durch die Ja/trbranch of the Pennsylvania railway. It is an iron manu- hunderte)1884, Handzeichnungen, Mein Rhein, Meine facturing town of recent growth. Population (1900), 5930. Ruh, Pelesch im Dienst; 1885, Mein Buch; 1886, EeldCharles (Karl Eitel Zephyrin Ludwig), King post, Astra* Anna Boleyn*; 1887, Es Klopft, In der of Rumania (1839 ), second son of Prince Karl Anton Irre*; 1888, Cuvinte Sujletesci, Rache* Islandfischer of Hohenzollern, was born 20th April 1839. He was (from the French of Pierre Loti); 1889, Lieder^ oms dem educated at Dresden, 1850-56, and passed through his Dimbovitzathal (from the Rumanian of H. Vacarescu) ; university course at Bonn. Entering the Prussian army 1890, Frauenmuth, Deficit, VomAmboss ; 1891, Handwerin 1859, he won considerable distinction in the Danish kerlieder, Meerlieder, Heimath, WeihnachtsTcerzchen / 1892, war of 1864, and was a captain in the 2nd regiment of Meister Manole, Bucarest (in Les Capitales du Monde). As the only child of the marriage, a daughter, died in Dragoon Guards when he was elected domn or lord of Rumania, 20th April 1866, after the compulsory abdica- 1874, the succession was finally settled upon the king’s tion of Prince Alexander John Couza. Regarded at first nephew, Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, with distrust by Turkey, Russia, and Austria, he succeeded who was created prince of Rumania, 18th March 1889, in gaining general recognition within six months; but he and who married, on 10th January 1893, Princess Marie, had to contend for ten years with the fierce party struggles daughter of the late Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg. Their that raged between the Boyars and the Liberals until the children are Prince Carol (b. 1893) and Princess Elizabeth latter were finally victorious in 1876. During this period, (b. 1894). however, Charles displayed great tact in his dealings with Charleston, capital of Coles county, Illinois, both parties, and kept his country in the path of adminis- U.S.A., at the intersection of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, trative and economical reform, organizing the army, Chicago, and St Louis, and the Toledo, St Louis, and developing the railways, and establishing commercial Kansas City railways. Population (1890), 4135; (1900), relations with foreign powers. The sympathy of Rumania 5488, of whom 139 were foreign-born and 45 negroes. with France in the Franco-Prussian war, and the conseCharleston, the principal city and seaport of quent interruption of certain commercial undertakings, led to a hostile movement against Prince Charles, which, South Carolina, U.S.A., capital of Charleston county, being fostered by Russia, made him resolve to abdicate, situated on a peninsula between Ashley and Cooper rivers and it was with difficulty that he was persuaded to remain. in 32° 46' N. lat. and 79° 56' W. long. It has three In the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78 he hurried to the railways, the Atlantic Coast Line, the Plant System, and help- of the Russians before Plevna, and being placed m the South Carolina and Georgia, which bring to it the command of the combined Russian and Rumanian forces, products of the interior—cotton, phosphates, and turpenhe Captured the enemy's camp and took Osman Pasha tine. The bar at the entrance to its deep and spacious prisoner. As a consequence of the prince’s vigorous action harbour has been cut away by the use of jetties, so as to the independence of Rumania, which had been proclaimed make entrance for vessels of 24'5 feet draught. In 1^98 in May 1877, was confirmed by various treaties in 1878, the export trade amounted to $11,440,130, and consisted and recognized by Great Britain, I ranee, and Germany in mainly of cotton and phosphates. There- are regular