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BACAU — BACCHYLIDES of Etanna, and of Zu. Hades, tlie abode of Nin-erisgal, or Allat, had been entered by Nergal, who, angered by a message sent to her by the gods of the upper world, ordered Namtar to strike off her head. She, however, declared that she would submit to any conditions imposed on her and would give Nergal the sovereignty of the earth. Nergal accordingly relented, and Allat became the queen of the infernal world. Etanna conspired with the eagle to fly to the highest heaven. The first gate, that of Anu, was successfully reached; but in ascending still farther to the gate of Istar the strength of the eagle gave way, and Etanna was dashed to the ground. As for the storm-god Zu, we are told that he stole the tablets of destiny, and therewith the prerogatives of Bel. God after god was ordered to pursue him and recover them, but it would seem that it was only by a stratagem that they were finally regained. The contract-tablets have thrown a flood of light on the social life and customs of Babylonia, and have shown that the woman was on a footing of equality with Social hfe. ^ man gpe coui(j carry on business on her own account, could inherit and bequeath property, could hold civil offices, and plead in a court of justice. Polygamy seems to have been rare; and we even hear of a case in which it is stipulated that if the husband marries a second wife the dowry of the first wife shall be returned to her, and she shall be free to go where she chooses. Slaves were protected by law, and they too could acquire property of their own under certain conditions, and appear as witnesses in court. The use of torture for extorting confessions was unknown. The judges, who were appointed by the crown, decided according to the evidence brought before them. There were pleadings and counter-pleadings, and we hear of punishment for perjury. Babylonia was pre-eminently an industrial and commercial state, carrying on commerce with all parts of the known world, and there was therefore a highly elaborate commercial code of law. The decisions of the judges were largely ruled by precedents, which necessitated a careful registration of former verdicts, as well as an accurate system of dating. Education was widespread, and involved a study of the extinct language of Sumer. Women, as well as men, could read and write, and letters passed to and fro between all classes of the community. Mathematics were fairly advanced ; eclipses of the sun and moon could be foretold, and the zodiac was a Babylonian invention. There were various holidays, that of the New Year (Zagmulcu, or Akttu) being the most sacred. It was then that Bel entered the Holy of Holies, and seating himself above the mercy-seat (parakku) determined the destinies of mankind. There were no castes. Each man was free to follow what profession he chose. The priesthood, however, was divided into many different classes. Among these we may name the barutu, asipii, and zammarH, or “ seers,” “ prophets,” and “ singers.” The ordinary priests were termed kalu {(/alii) and sangiltu, the high-priest being sanga-makhkhu. Other classes of priests attended to the sattukku, or daily sacrifice, and received the nindabu or freewill offering from the worshipper. The sacrifices were bloody {zibU) and unbloody, among the latter being the niqu, or libation, the qutrinnu, or incenseoffering, and the sirqu, or drink-offering. Nor must we forget the qurbannu, the korban of the Jewish ritual. The temples were supported by the esrd or tithe. By the side of the priests there does not appear to have been any privileged class of nobility. As might have been expected in a commercial community, no stigma attached to trade. All members of the state took part in it, and we find even the crown-prince, Belshazzar, acting through his agent as a wool-merchant. Money-lending, however, appears to have been one of the most profitable professions. The


ordinary rate of interest was 20 per cent., paid in monthly instalments j but at Babylon in the time of Nebuchadrezzar it tended to be lower, and there are instances of loans in which it is put at 13^ per cent. Payment was either in kind, or, more usually, in specie, the money consisting of stamped rings or bars of gold, silver, and copper. The standard was the maneh, divided into 60 shekels, the standard maneh which was still in use up to the age of Nabonidos being that which had been originally fixed by Dungi, king of Ur. One of these standard-weights, made of stone and from the mint of Nebuchadrezzar, is now in the British Museum. The Babylonian cemetery adjoined the city of the living, and was built on the same plan as the latter. It was laid out in streets through which trickled rivulets of “ pure ” water. Many of the tombs, which were made of crude bricks, were provided with gardens, and there were shelves or altars on which were placed the offerings to the dead. After a burial brushwood was usually heaped round the wall of the tomb, and set on fire, so that the corpse within was partially cremated along with the objects that had been buried with it. As the older tombs decayed a new city of tombs arose above them, the city of the dead thus growing in height in the course of centuries, like the cities of the living. The city and the cemetery of ancient Babylonia are alike marked by a “tel.” Authorities.—H. Rassam. Asshur and the Land of Nimrod. Cincinnati, 1897.—E. de Sarzec. Dtcouvertes cn Chaldee. Paris, 1884, if.—H. V. Hilprecht. The Babylonian Expedition of the University of Pemisylvania. Philadelphia, 1893, fl.—J. P. Peters. Nippur. New York, 1897. —E. Schrader. Keilinschriftlichc Bibliothek (vols. i.-iii. historical inscriptions, iv. legal texts, v. Tel el-Amarna tablets, with Engl, tr., vi. mythological texts). Berlin, 1889-1900.—Records of the Past, new ser. London, 1888-92.—C. F. Lehmann. Samas-sum-ukin. Leipzig, 1892.—F. Hommel. Die vorsemitische Kulturen. Leipzig, 1883.—Maspero. Dawn of Civilization (1896), Struggle of the Nations (1897), Passing of the Empires (1899). S.P.C.K.—H. Radau. Early Babxjlonian History. London, 1900.—A. H. Sayce. Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion. London, 1887.—Babylonians and Assyrians: Life and Customs. London, 1900.—R. C. Thompson. Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon. London, 1900.—R. E. Brunnow. Classified List of Cuneiform Ideographs. Leyden, 1887-89.—F. Hommel. Sumerische Lesestiicke. Munich, 1894,—p. Delitzsch. Assyrisches Handw'&rterbuch. Leipzig, 1894-96.—Thureau-Dangin. Recherches sur VOrigins de VEcriture Cuniiformc. Paris, 1898. (a. H. S.) Bacau, a town in Rumania, capital of the district of the same name, situated near the river Bistritza. The town, which is of modern growth, owes its commercial importance to the fact of its being the point of convergence of the two great highways, one from Bacau to Gyergyo-Szent-Miklbs in Transylvania, vid Piatra and the pass of Tblgyes, the other from Bacau to Kezdi-V&sarhely in Transylvania, vid Onesci, Soosmezo, and the pass of Ojtoz. The population in 1895 numbered 16,000; in 1900, 16,187, of whom 7850 were Jews. Baccarat, a town of France, in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, arrondissement of Luneville, 30 miles S.E. of Nancy; connected with Paris by rail. Its glassworks continue to grow in importance, and now give employment to about 2300 persons. The products include ornamental articles of great variety and beauty. Population (1881), 4902; (1896), 5425; (1901), 7014. Bacchylides, the only lyric poet of Greece, except Pindar, of whose work we possess large remains, was born at lulis, in the island of Ceos. His father’s name was probably Meidon; his mother was a sister of Simonides, himself a native of lulis. Eusebius says that Bacchylides “flourished” {r/Kpafev) in 01. 78. 2 (467 b.c.). As the term r/Kga^ev refers to the physical prime, and was commonly placed at about the fortieth year, we may suppose that Bacchylides was born circa 507 b.c., a date