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CHATTANOOGA —CHELMSFORD

caves and kitchen-middens in New Zealand, which was valley (5 miles long) of the same name in the Jura, It is contemporaneous with the prehistoric Maoris and was still the centre of the watchmaking industry. In 1896 it largely used by them for food. One of the finest of the exported watches to the value of nearly 2^ million pounds endemic flowering plants of the group is the boraginaceous sterling. It boasts of being “le plus grand village de “Chatham Island lily” (Myositidium, nobile), a gigantic 1’Europe,” and certainly, despite many handsome buildings, forget-me-not, which grows on the shingly shore in a few has preserved some features of a big village. Population places only, and always just on the high-water mark, where (1888), 25,603 (mostly Protestant and French-speaking); it is daily deluged by the waves; while dracophyllums, (1900)’ 35,890. Cheboygan, capital of Cheboygan county, Michileucopogons, and arborescent ragworts are characteristic forms in the vegetation. The chief export from the group gan, U.S.A., situated on M‘Leod Bay, Strait of Mackinac, in is wool, grown upon runs farmed both by Europeans and the ’northern part of the lower peninsula, at an altitude of Morioris. There is also a small export by the natives of 598 feet. It is a lumber city, and has considerable lake the flesh of young albatrosses and other sea birds, boiled commerce. It is on a branch of the Michigan Central down and cured, for the Maoris of New Zealand, by whom railway. Population (1880), 2269; (1890), 6235; (1900), it is reckoned a delicacy. The imports consist of the 6489, of whom 2101 were foreign-born. usual commodities required by a population where little Chefbo, or Chifu, a treaty port in the proof the land is actually cultivated. vince of Shantung, China, 260 miles S.E.. by E. of It has continued to show fair progress Bibliography.—Forbes, H. 0. “The Chatham Islands and Peking. their Story.” Fortnightly Review, 1893, vol. liii. p. 669. “The as a place of trade, but the total volume is inconsiderChatham Islands: their Relation to a former Southern Con- able, having regard to the area it supplies. In 1880 tinent.” Supplementary Papers, R.G.S., vol. iii. 1893.— the total exports and imports were valued at H. taels Scott, J. H. “ The Osteology of the Maori and the Morion. Trans. New Zealand Institute, vol. xxvi. 1893.—Andrews, C. W. 9,906,000 (£2,724,000), and in 1899 amounted to H. taels ‘ ‘ The Extinct Birds of the Chatham Islands. ” Novitates Zoologica, 28,154,000 (£4,228,000). Communication with the invol. ii. p. 73, 1896. (h. 0. F.) terior is only by roads, which are extremely defective, and Chattanooga, capital of Hamilton county, Ten- nearly all the traffic is by pack animals. In the event of nessee, U.S.A., in 35° 2' N. lat. and 85° 21' W. long., on the German Government building the railways which are the left bank of Tennessee river, just north of the state now in contemplation from their newly-acquired port of line, at an altitude of 681 feet. It is an important railway Kiaochow, situated on the south side of the peninsula centre, being at the intersection of eight railways, five of of Shantung, it is probable that the trade of Chefoo which are trunk lines. In manufactures it is of great will dwindle into insignificance. From its salubrious situaimportance, its invested capital amounting in 1890 to tion and the convenience of its anchorage, Chefoo has $7,400,000, with 5741 employees and an output of become a favourite rendezvous for the fleets of the Euro$10,216,000, the leading industries being iron and steel. pean Powers in Chinese waters, and consequently it has at This city is the seat of the U.S. Grant University, a times been an important coaling. station. It lies in close Methodist Episcopal institution, founded in 1867. In proximity to Korea, Port Arthur, and Wei-hai-W ei, and 1898 this had a faculty of 42 teachers and was attended it shared to some extent in the excitement to which by 491 students. The assessed valuation of the real and the military and naval operations in these quarters gave personal property of Chattanooga, on a basis of about 65 rise. The Chefoo convention was signed here in 18(6 per cent, of the full value, was in 1900, $12,552,090; the between Sir Thomas Wade and Li Hung-Chang. net debt was $879,032, and the rate of taxation, including Chelmsford,a municipal borough (1888), market that for the state and county, $27 per $1000. During town, and county town of Essex, England, on the Chelmer, the Civil War a series of engagements took place near 29 miles N.E. of London by rail, in the mid-parliamentary Chattanooga on 23rd to 25th November 1863, when Grant division of the county. It has agricultural implement with 60,000 men defeated the Confederates under Bragg and iron foundries, large electric light and engineering (40,000 to 50,000 men). The Federal losses were 5616, works, breweries, maltings, extensive corn-mills and large those of the Confederates 8684 and 6142 prisoners. cattle and corn markets, a large tannery, and fine shops. Population (1880), 12,872; (1890), 29,100; (1900), The rateable value (1888) was £42,220, (1901) £61,460. 30,154, of whom 994 were foreign-born and 13,122 were Area of borough (a civil parish), 2033 acres. Population negroes. Out of 9133 males of voting age, 1347 were (1881), 9793; (1901), 12,580. illiterate (unable to write), of whom 1200 were negroes. Chelmsford, Frederic Thesiger, 1st Chautauqua, a summer educational village on Baron (1794-1878), Lord Chancellor of England, was the shores of Chautauqua Lake, in western New York, the seventh and youngest child of Charles Thesiger, and U.S.A. The lake is a beautiful sheet of water, 1212 feet was born in London on loth April 1794. His fathei, above the sea, 20 miles long, and one to two miles in Charles Thesiger, collector of customs at 8>t Vincent s, was width, and flows out by Conewango Creek into Allegheny the son of a Saxon gentleman who had migrated to river. The village is situated on the western side of the England and become secretary to Lord Bockingham, and lake, near its northern end, at the terminus of the was the brother of Sir Frederick Thesiger, naval A.D.C. Chautauqua and Jamestown railway. It was founded in to Nelson at Copenhagen. Young Frederick Thesiger 1874 by the Chautauqua Assembly, and contains some was originally destined, like another Chancellor, Lord 500 cottages, with hotels and numerous buildings for Erskine, for a naval career, and he served as a midshipman educational purposes. All municipal improvements, in- on board the Cambrian frigate in 1801 at the second cluding water-supply, drainage, fire department, electric bombardment of Copenhagen. His only surviving brother, lighting, &c., have been provided. Every summer classes however, died about this time, and he became entitled to are held in literature, art, pedagogy, and kindred subjects, succeed to a valuable estate in the West Indies, so it was when the population is estimated at 10,000 and the decided that he should leave the navy and study law, with a view to practising in the West Indies and eventattendance at the‘various schools at 1000 to 1500. ually managing his property in person. Another change Chaux de Fonds, La, a town in the Swiss canton of NeucMtel. It is 18f miles N.W. of NeucMtel of fortune, however, awaited him, for a volcano destroyed by rail, and stands at a height of about 3281 feet in a the family estate, and he was thrown back upon his