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CHEMNITZ—.i 1HERBULIEZ 747 Chemnitz, a town of Saxony, Germany, in the L8,000 metric tons of iron, and the working in metals fertile valley of the Mulde, 50 miles by rail W. by S. from 17,000 metric tons of cast iron of the value of £480,000. Dresden and 51 S.E. of Leipzig. It is one of the principal Cherbourg', a seaport and chief town of arrondissecommercial and industrial centres of Germany. Its im- ment, department of Manche, France, 46 miles N.N.W. of portance arises from its cotton-spinning, hosiery, furniture, St L6, and 230 miles from Paris by rail. The manufacturtextile, and glove manufactures, in which a very considerable ing industries of Cherbourg, other than those connected trade is done with the United Kingdom and the United with the Government works, are now limited, the most States of America. Its locomotive and agricultural imple- important being engineering, steamboat-building, and the ment works are of world-wide reputation. It is also the manufacture of agricultural implements. Shipping in seat of considerable dyeworks, bleachworks, chemical and 1899 comprised 946 vessels entered, tonnage 989,043, woollen factories, and produces leather and straps, cement, and 1021 cleared, tonnage 985,882. Of this Great Britain’s small vehicles, wire-woven goods, carpets, beer, and bricks’ share was, vessels entered 774, tonnage 408,707, and cleared The churches of St Peter (1888), of St Nicholas (1888)’ ° . , _f°nn^ge 198,011. Wines have become one of the and St Mark (1895), and the synagogue (1899) are the principal imports, and the export of stone to England has principal new buildings of interest. The town is especi- largely increased during recent years. Cherbourg is a ally well provided with technical schools for training in poit of call for several lines of English and American the various industries, including a commercial, public, transatlantic companies. There are a chamber of comeconomic, and agricultural schools, and has a chamber of merce, a civil and naval hospital, and four libraries. In commerce. There are also industrial and historical the commercial harbour the inner basin has now a length museums, and collections of paintings and natural history. of 1311 feet, a width of 650 feet, a depth on sill at To the north-west of the town is the Gothic church of a ordinary spring tide of 25 feet, and 3026 feet of quayage; former Benedictine monastery, dating from 1514-25, with in the tidal harbour the depth of water varies from about a tower of 1897. Chemnitz is a favourite tourist centre 26 feet high spring to 7 feet low neap tide; length of for excursions into the Erzgebirge, the chain of mountains quays 2952 feet. The military port with the connected separating Saxony from Bohemia. Population (1885) buildings covers an area of 54 acres. It comprises three 110,817; (1890), 138,954; (1895), 161,017; (1900)’ principal basins, with a minimum depth of 30 feet 206,584. The commune of Alt-Chemnitz (6398 in 1890) Population (1881), 27,439; (1901), 42,952. was incorporated with Chemnitz in 1894. Cherbuliez, Charles-Victor (1829 1899), CflCnCCy a town of Belgium, in the province of and French novelist and miscellaneous writer, was born 19 th 3 miles S.E. of Liege, on railway to Yerviers. It has July 1829, at Geneva, where his father was a classical forges, iron and copper foundries, and manufacture of professor at the university. ( He was descended from a glass. Population (communal) (1880), 5765; (1897), 8334. family of Protestant refugees, and many years later reChenery, Thomas (1826-1884), English scholar sumed his French nationality, taking advantage of an Act and editor of the Times, was born in 1826 at Barbados, passed in the early days of the Revolution. Geneva was and educated at Eton and Caius College, Cambridge. the scene of his early education; thence he proceeded to Having been called to the bar, he went out to Constanti- Paris, and afterwards to the universities of Bonn and nople as Times correspondent just before the Crimean war, Berlin. He returned to his native town and engaged in and it was under the influence there of Mr Algernon the profession of teaching. After his resumption of Smythe (afterwards Lord Strangford) that he first turned French citizenship he was elected a member of the to those philological studies in which he became eminent. Academy (1881), and having received the Legion of After the war he returned to London and wrote regularly for Honour in 1870, he was promoted to be officer of the the Times for many years,1 and eventually succeeded Delane Order in 1892. He died 1st July 1899. Cherbuliez as editor in 1877. He was then an experienced publicist, was a voluminous and successful writer of fiction. His particularly well versed in Oriental affairs, an indefatigable first book, originally published in 1860, reappeared in worker, with a rapid and comprehensive judgment, though 1864 under the title of Un Cheval de Phidias: it is a he lacked Delane’s intuition for public opinion. It was as romantic study of art in the golden age of Athens. He an Orientalist, however, that he had meantime earned went on to produce a series of novels, of which the followthe highest reputation, his knowledge of Arabic and ing are the best known:—Le Comte Kostia (1863), Le Hebrew being almost unrivalled and his gift for languages Prince Vitale (1864), Le Poman d’une honnete Femme exceptional. In 1868 he was appointed Lord Almoner’s (1866), HAventure de I.adislas Bolski (1869), Miss professor of Arabic at Oxford, remaining professor till Rovel (1875), Samuel Brohl et Cie. (1877), HIdee de he became editor of the Times, and he was one of the Jean Tetoral (1878), Fairs et Rouges (1880), La Vocacompany of revisers of the Old Testament. He was secre- tion du Comte Ghislain (1888), Une Gageure (1890), Le tary for some time to the Royal Asiatic Society, and pub- Secret du Precepteur (1893), Jacquine Vanesse (1898), &c. lished learned editions of the Arabic classic TJie Assemblies Most of these novels first appeared in the Revue des Deux of Al-Hariri and of the Machberoth Ithiel. He died in Mondes, to which Cherbuliez also contributed a number of political and other learned articles, usually printed with London, 11th February 1884. the pseudonym G. Yalbert. Many of these have been Cher, a department in the centre of France, watered published in collected form under the titles HAllemagne by the river of the same name. politique (1870), VEspagne politique (1874), Profils Area, 2819 square miles, with 29 cantons and 292 communes. etrangers (1889), UArt et la Nature (1892), Ac. the The population decreased from 355,349 in 1886 to 342,889 in 1901. volume Etudes de litterature et d’art (1873) includes Births in 1899, 6843, of which 527 illegitimate ; deaths, 6336 ; marriages, 2615. In 1896 there were 684 schools, with 50,000 articles for the most part reprinted from Le Temps. The pupils, and 6 per cent, of the population was illiterate. Bourges, earlier novels of Cherbuliez have been said with truth to the capital, had a population of 44,000. The area under culti- show marked traces of the influence of George Sand; and vation in 1896 amounted to 1,645,780 acres, 1,035,408 acres of in spite of modification, his method was that of an older which were plough-land and 296,536 acres woods and forests. In 1899 the wheat crop returned a value of £1,414,000, and oats school. He did not possess the sombre power or the in£648,000. The produce of the vines was valued at £135,000. tensely analytical skill of some of his later contemporaries, The live stock in 1899 included 38,090 horses, 155,580 cattle^ but his books are distinguished by a freshness and honesty, 369,000 sheep, and 42,220 pigs. The mining industry in 1898 fortified by cosmopolitan knowledge and lightened by