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CHESS 753 British Chess Magazine and first prize in the problem Text-Book. 1887.—A. F. Mackenzie. Chess: its Poetry and its tournament of the Wiener Schachzeitung. Prose. Jamaica, 1887.—J. A. Miles. Chess Stars (self-mates). Problem Tournaments.—The idea of holding a problem 1888.—James Rayner. Chess Problems. 1890.—B. G. Laws. Chess Problem. 1890. — The Chess Bouquet. Comcompetition open to the world was first mooted in con- The Two-Move by F. R. Gittins. 1897.—Mr and Mrs T. B. Rowland. nexion with the Chess Congress of 1851. The projected piled The Problem Art {pcconOicWAovL). 1898.—E. B. Cook, T. Henery, tournament was for the time abandoned, but in the year and C. A. Gilberg. American Chess-Nuts. 1868.—Samuel 1854 a tourney confined to British composers was held, Loyd. Chess Strategy. 1878.—W. H. Lyons. Chess-Nut Burrs how to open them. 1886.—C. A. Gilberg. Crumbs from and this—the earliest recorded—resulted in the two prizes and the Chess Board. 1890.—Canadian Chess Problems. Edited by falling to W. Grimshaw and Silas Angas respectively. A C. F. Stubbs. 1890.—W. Pulitzer. Chess Harmonies. 1894. brief summary of the more important tournaments is —G. E. Carpenter (N. Preti of Paris). 200 Chess Problems. 1900. History.—According to Mr W. S. Branch of Cheltenham, an appended, in which, however, no mention is made of the on problem lore, the earliest known problem dates from competitions held in the leading provincial chess columns authority the 9th century, and is ascribed to an Arabian caliph.- The first of the United Kingdom, as to enumerate all would require ccl e( on U is that in a manuscript (in the British Museum) too much space, whilst a choice would be invidious. of Allonso,^ king of Castile, dated 1250, containing 103 problems ; Mention may be made of a few of the organs which have whilst the collection of Nicholas de Nicolai of Lombardy, dated 1300, comprises 192 problems. Problems are to be found in the been conspicuously successful in attracting the participa- works of the undermentioned

—Lucena (1437), Damiano (1512),

tion of composers of the highest repute : Leeds Mercury Poleno (1616), Carrera (1617), Stamma (1737), Ercole del Supplement, Manchester Weekly Times, Liverpool Weekly ?r10 J1?50)’, (U63), Ponziani (1769), Lewis (1817), Mercury, Bristol Mercury, Brighton Society, and The Mendheim (1832), Alexandre (1846). Other early composers were

Bone, Bolton, D’Orville, L’Hermet, Capraez, Kling, Herlin, English Mechanic and Knowledge. Amongst the prize- Kuiper, Angas, Micheson, Pavitt, Plachutta, Kieseritsky, and winners in these the most notable successes have fallen to Silbcrschmidt. Coming to the period of the “transition” and G. Heathcote, Mrs Baird, P. F. Blake, P. H. Williams, ‘modern problems (roughly speaking from the middle of the 19th century), the foremost composers of various nationalities W. Gleave, and P. G. L. Fothergill. have been : (Great Britain), J. G. Campbell, W. Grimshaw, J. B. In the following list the winners of first prizes only of Bridport, F. Healey, C. W. of Sunbury, G. J. Slater, A. E. are given. Where two or more names occur they repre- Studd, Mrs Baird, B. G. Laws, C. Planck, C. A. L. Bull G sent winners in different sections of the same tourney :— Heathcote, P. F. Blake, Rev. A. Cyril Pearson, Sir J. o’. S. Thursby, and E. B. Schwann, the latter one of the foremost Era ..... 1855 C. Bayer. authorities on the problem in England ; (Germany and Austria), New York 1857 R. Willmers. C. Bayer, P. Klett, R. Willmers, J. Kohtz, C. Kockelkorn, R. Bristol * . . . 1861 F. Healey. Braune, F. Schriifer, A. Bayersdorfer, J. Berger, M. Ehrenstein, London . . . . 1862 C. Bayer. H. v. Gottschall, R. Schindler, R. Weinheimer, O. Nemo, M. Le Palamede Francais 1865 D. Lamouroux. Feigl, and C. Erlin ; (Bohemia), J. Dobrusky, J. Pospisil, G. Paris . . . . 1867 C. Bayer. Chocholous, K. Kondelik, P. K. Traxler, and J. Kotrc; (United British Chess Association. 1872 S. A. Sorensen. States), S. Loyd, G. Cheney, G. E. Carpenter, C. A. Gilberg, Paris . . . . 1878 J. Berger. W. A. Shinkman, F. M. Teed, and O. Wurzburg; (Canada), J. N. Leipzig . . . . 1879 Kohtz and Kockelkorn Babson

(Jamaica), A. F. Mackenzie ; (France), H. Leprettel and

(joint). L. Pradignat; (Italy), G. B. Valle ; (Scandinavia), Fr. af Geyerstam Berlin . . . . 1881 E. Pradignat, L. Noack, and A. S. Sorensen ; (Sjiain), Tolosa Carreras and Y. Marin ; and F. Dubbe. Brentano's Magazine. 1882 J. Dobrusky. Chess Monthly . Examples of Problems. 1882 H. Leprettel, Rev. A. Cyril I. By Stamma. II. By W. Bone. Nuremberg 1883 J. Berger (2), F. Schriifer, BLACK. F. Geyerstam BLACK. Chess Monthly . 1884-86 A. E. Studd and F. Healey. British Chess Association. 1886 J. Pospisil. Prague . ... 1886 J. Kotrc and J. Pospisil. Counties Chess Association 1887 B. G. Laws. Frankfort.... 1887 J. Berger and J. Jespersen. Andrews Memorial {B.C.M.) . . . 1888 J. Kotrc. Breslau .... 1889 G. Chocholous, R. Adam, and J. Pospisil. Miinchener neueste Mach- 1889 F. Schindler, A. Norlin, richten J. Pospisil. Bahn Frei . . . 1890 L. deYongandZ. Bennecke. St. John's Globe . . 1891 W. A. Shinkman. Dresden .... 1892 O. Fuss and J. Pospisil. Chess Monthly . . . 1895 B. G. Laws, ■ J. Jespersen, WHITE. WHITE. and V. Marin. White to play and mate in three (3) White to play and mate in seven (7) Munchener neueste Mach- 1893-9 M. Karstedt, F. Moller, moves. moves. richten F. Meyer, and R. WeinIII. By A. Anderssen. heimer. IY. By Rev. C. Loveday. Schachmatny Journal . 1894 K. Musil. BLACK. BLACK. Prague . . . .1895 W. Tuzar and P. K. Traxler. Warsaw Courier . . 1896 L. Vetesnik. Buy Lopez . . . 1897 V. Marin. Meues illustrirtes Blatt . 1898 J. Svejda. St. Petersburger Zeitung . 1898 J. Fridlizius. British Chess Magazine . 1898 A. F. Mackenzie, M. A. Dahl, and O. Nemo. Prague .... 1899 A. F. Mackenzie. British Chess Magazine . 1900 P. K. Traxler. Nuova B,emsta . . . 1901 E. Pradignat. Wiener Schachzeitung . 1901 A. F. Mackenzie. Problem Literature.—The following are some of the best works in the English language to consult on chess problems:—J. B. of Bridport. Chess Strategy. 1865.—F. Healey. A Collection of 200 Chess Problems. 1866.—English Chess Problems. Edited by WHITE. WHITE. James and W. T. Pierce. 1876.—H. J. C. Andrews, E. N. White to play and mate in three (3) White to play and mate in four (4) Frankenstein, B. G. Laws, and C. Planck. The Chess Problem moves. moves. S. II. — 95