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144 THE MUGHAL DYNASTY. revenue of ^ millions had been raised, chiefly by new conquests, to 22 millions sterling under Shah Jahan. But this sum included Kashmir, and five Provinces in Afghanistan, some of which were lost during his reign. The land revenue of the Mughal Empire within India was 2of millions. The magnifi- cence of Shah Jahan' s court was the wonder of European travellers. His Peacock Throne, with its tail blazing in the shifting natural colours of rubies, sapphires, and emeralds, was valued by the jeweller Tavernier at 6} millions sterling. Eebellion of Prince Aurangzeb, 1657. — Akbar's dynasty lay under the curse of rebellious sons. As Jahangfr had risen against his most loving father, Akbar, and as Shah Jahan had mutinied against Jahangfr ; so Shah Jahan in his turn suffered from the intrigues and rebellions of his family. In 1657, the old king fell ill; and Aurangzeb, after a treacherous conflict with his brethren, deposed his father, and proclaimed himself emperor in 1658. The unhappy emperor was kept in confine- ment for seven years, and died a State prisoner in the fort of Agra in 1666. The Reign of Aurangzeb, 1658-1707. Chronological Summary. 1658. Deposition of Shah Jahan, and usurpation of Aurangzeb. 1659. Aurangzeb defeats his brothers Shuja and Dara. Dara, being betrayed by a chief with whom he had sought refuge, is put to death. 1660. Continued struggle of Aurangzeb with his brother Shuja, who ulti- mately flies to Arakan, and there perishes miserably. 1661. Aurangzeb executes his youngest brother, Murad, in prison. 1662. Unsuccessful invasion of Assam by Aurangzeb's general, Mir Jumla. Disturbances in the Deccan. War between Bijapur and the Marathas under Sivaji. After various changes of fortune, Sivaji, the founder of the Maratha power, retains a considerable territory. 1662-1665. Sivaji the Maratha in rebellion against the Mughal Empire. In 1664, he assumes the title of Raja, and asserts his independence. In i66p, on a large army being sent against him, he makes sub- mission, and proceeds to Delhi, where he is placed under restraint, but soon afterwards escapes. 1666. Death of the deposed emperor, Shah Jahan. War in the Deccan, and defeat of the Imperial Army from Delhi by the King of Bijapur. 1667. Sivaji makes peace with Aurangzeb, and obtains an extension of territory. Sivaji levies tribute from Bijapur and Golconda.