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THE EMPEROR AURANGZEB. 145 The Reign of Aurangzeb {continued). 1670. Sivaji the Maratha ravages Khandesh and the Deccan, and there levies for the first time chauth, or a contribution of one-fourth of the revenue. 1672. Defeat of the Mughal or Imperial troops by Sivaji. 1677. Aurangzeb revives the jaziah, or poll-tax on non-Muhammadans. 1679. Aurangzeb at war with the Rajputs. Rebellion of Prince Akbar, Aurangzeb's youngest son, who joins the Rajputs, but whose army deserts him. Prince Akbar is forced to fly to the Marathas. 1672-1680. Progress of the Marathis in the Deccan. Sivaji crowns him- self an independent sovereign at Raigarh in 1674. His wars with Bijapur and the Mughal or Imperial troops. Sivaji dies in 1680, and is succeeded by his son, Sambhaji. 1683. Aurangzeb invades the Deccan in person, at the head of his Grand Army. 1686-1688. Aurangzeb conquers Bijapur and Golconda, and annexes them to the empire. 1689. Aurangzeb captures Sambhaji, the head of the Marathas, and bar- barously puts him to death. 1692. Guerilla war with the Marathas under their various leaders. 1698. Aurangzeb's general captures Ginji from the Marathas. 1699-1701. Capture of Satara and Maratha forts by Aurangzeb. Apparent ruin of the Marathas. 1702-1705. Fresh successes of the Marathas. 1 706. Aurangzeb retreats to Ahmadnagar ; and, 1707. Miserably dies there. Aurangzeb, Emperor, 1658-1707. — Aurangzeb proclaimed himself emperor in 1658, in the room of his imprisoned father, under the title of Alamgfr, the Conqueror of the Universe, and reigned until 1707. Under Aurangzeb the Mughal Empire reached its widest limits. But his long rule of forty-nine years merely presents on a more magnificent stage the usual tragic drama of a Mughal reign. In its personal character, it began with his rebellion against his father; consolidated itself by the murder of his brethren ; and darkened to a close amid the mutinies, intrigues, and jealousies of his own sons. Its public aspects consisted of a magnificent court in Northern India ; conquests of the independent Muhammadan kings in the south ; and wars against the Hindu powers, which, alike in Rajputana and in Southern India or the Deccan, were gathering strength for the overthrow of the Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb murders his Brothers.^-The year after his accession, Aurangzeb defeated and put to death his eldest