FRENCH WARS IN THE KARnAtIK. 177 Viceroys of India under the Crown, 1858-92. 18,^8. Earl Canning. 1862. Earl of Elgin. 1863. Sir Robert Napier, afterwards Lord Napier of Magdala (officiating). 18(13. Sir William Denison (offici- ating). 1864. Sir John Lawrence, Bart. (Lord Lawrence). 1869. Earl of Mayo. 1872. Sir John Strachey (officiating}. 1872. Lord Napier of Merchistonn (officiating). 1872. Lord(aft.Earl of )Northbrook. 1876. Lord (aft. Eavl of) Lytton. 1 88b. Marquess of Ripon. 1884. Earl of Dufierin (afterwards Marquess of Dufferin and Ava). 1888. Marquess of Lansdowne. The French and English in the South. — The political history of the British in India begins in the eighteenth century with the French wars in the Karndtik. It was at Arcot, in the Madras Presidency, that Clive's star first shone forth ; and it was on the field of Wandiwash in the same Presidency that the French dream of an Indian Empire was for ever shattered. Fort St. George, or Madras, was, as we have seen, the first ter- ritorial possession of the English on the mainland of India, having been founded by Mr. Francis Day in 1639. The French settlement of Pondicherri, about 100 miles lower down the Coromandel coast, was established in 1674 ; and for many years the English and French traded side by side without rivalry or territorial ambition. Southern India after 1707. — On the death of the Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb, in 1707, Southern India gradually became independent of Delhi. In the Deccan proper, the Nizam-ul Mulk founded a hereditary dynasty, with Haidarabad for its capital, which exercised a nominal authority over the entire south. The Karnatik, or the lowland tract between the central plateau and the Bay of Bengal, was ruled by a deputy of the Nizam, known as the Nawab of Arcot, who in his turn asserted claims to hereditary sovereignty. Farther south, Trichinopoli was the capital of a Hindu Rajd ; Tanjore formed another Hindu kingdom under a degenerate descendant of the Marathi leader, Sivajf. Inland, Mysore was gradually growing into a third Hindu State ; while everywhere local chieftains, called pdlegdrs or nayaks, were in semi-independent possession of citadels or hill-forts. These represented the feudal chiefs or
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