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2l8 THE C0NS0LWA7'I0N OF BRITISH INDIA. right to succeed alike to the private fortune and the public government of their father. But when there was only an adopted son, Lord Dalhousie, while scrupulously respecting the claims of the heirs to the private fortune of the late chief, denied the right of the adopted son to succeed to the public govern- ment of the State. He held the government of a Native State to be a public trust ; he also held that, in the absence of direct male issue with a lawful claim to succeed, the succession must be decided by the British Government, not in the interests of the family of the late chief, but in the interests of the people. Those interests he believed to be most effectually protected by bringing them under direct British rule. Lapsed Native States. — The first State to escheat to the British Government, in accordance with these principles, was Sat&ra, which had been reconstituted by Lord Hastings on the downfall of the Peshwa. in 1818. The Raja of Satdra, the last direct representative of Sivajf, died without a son in 1848, and his deathbed adoption of a son was set aside (1849). In the same year, the Rajput State of Karauli was saved by the Court of Directors, who drew a fine distinction between a dependent principality and a protected ally. In 1853, Jhansi suffered the same fate as Satara. But the most conspicuous application of the doctrine of lapse was the case of Nagpur. The last of the Maratha Bhonslas, a dynasty older than the British Government in India, died without a son, natural or adopted, in 1853. His territories were annexed, and became the Central Provinces. That year also saw British administration extended to the Berars, or the Assigned Districts, which the Nizam of Haidarabad was induced to hand over to us as a territorial guarantee for the subsidies which he perpetually left in arrear. The relics of three other dynasties also passed away in 1853, although with- out any attendant accretion to British territory. In the extreme south, the titular Nawab of the Karnatik and the titular Raja of Tanjore both died without heirs. Their rank and their pensions died with them, but compassionate allowances were continued to their families. In the north of India, Bajf Rao, the ex-Peshwa, who had been dethroned in 18 18, lived on till 1853 in the enjoyment of his annual pension of £80,000. His adopted son,