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1705, with a letter of recommendation to Leopold I at Vienna. The emperor yielded at once to the fascinations of his visitor, and would have attached him to his person had not his own death too rapidly interrupted his intentions. Astorga remained in or returned to Vienna during the reigns of Joseph I and Charles VI, and for many years led a romantic life of travel and adventure, in the course of which he visited and revisited Spain, Portugal, England, and Italy, reconciling himself on his way to the neglected protectress of his boyhood. In 1712 he was in Vienna, and acted as godfather to the daughter of his friend Caldara, whose register (May 9) may still be seen at S. Stephen's. In 1720 he reappeared there for a short time, and thence he finally retired to Bohemia, where he died, August 21, 1736, not however, as usually stated, in a monastery, but in the Schloss Raudnitz, which had been given up to him by its owner, the prince of Lobkowitz, and the archives of which contain evidence of the fact. This circumstance has only very recently been brought to light.

Among Astorga's compositions are his renowned 'Stabat Mater,' for 4 voices and orchestra, probably composed for the 'Society [App. p.525 "Academy"] of Antient Musick' of London, and executed at Oxford in 1713, MS. copies of the score of which are to be found in the British Museum and the imperial libraries of Berlin and Vienna; and a pastoral opera 'Dafni' (not 'Dafne'), composed and performed at Barcelona in June 1709, and probably last heard at Breslau in 1726, and to be found in the Hofbibliothek at Vienna in the Kiesewetter collection. A requiem is also mentioned as possibly lying in the castle where he ended his days. His name is also known by his beautiful cantatas, of which a great number are extant. The Abbé Santini had no less than 98 of these, 54 for soprano and 44 for contralto, with accompaniment for figured bass on the harpsichord, besides ten composed as duets for the same two voices. Of the Stabat Mater Hauptmann (no indulgent critic) writes ('Briefe,' ii. 51), 'It is a lovely thing, … a much more important work than Pergolesi's, and contains a trio, a duet, and an air, which are real masterpieces, wanting in nothing; neither old nor new, but music for all times, such as is too seldom to be met with.' The work is published (with pianoforte accompaniment) in the Peters Collection, and has been recently re-instrumented by Franz and issued by Leuckhart.

[ C. F. P. ]

A TEMPO (Ital.). 'In time.' When the time of a piece has been changed, either temporarily by an ad libitum, a piacere, etc., or for a longer period by a più lento, più allegro, or some similar term, the indication a tempo shows that the rate of speed is again to be that of the commencement of the movement.

ATHALIA. The third of Handel's oratorios; composed next after 'Deborah.' Words by Humphreys. The score was completed on June 1, 1733. First performed at Oxford July 10, 1733. Revived by Sacred Harmonic Society June 20, 1845.

ATHALIE. Mendelssohn composed overture, march, and six vocal pieces (Op. 74) to Racine's drama. In the spring of 1843 the choruses alone (female voices), with pianoforte. In May or June 1844, the overture and march. Early in 1845 choruses re-written and scored for orchestra. First performed at Berlin, Dec. 1, 1845; in England, Windsor Castle, Jan. 1, 1847; Philharmonic, March 12, 1849.

ATTACCA, i.e. 'begin' (Ital.), when placed at the end of a movement as the Scherzo of Beethoven's C minor Symphony, or all the three first movements of Mendelssohn's Scotch ditto—signifies that no pause is to be made, but that the next movement is to be attacked at once.

ATTACK. A technical expression for decision and spirit in beginning a phrase or passage. An orchestra or performer is said to be 'wanting in attack' when there is no firmness and precision in their style of taking up the points of the music. This applies especially to quick tempo. It is equivalent to the coup d'archet, once so much exaggerated in the Paris orchestras, and of which Mozart makes such game (Letter, June 12, 1778).

The chef d'attaque in France is a sort of subconductor who marks the moment of entry for the chorus.

ATTAIGNANT, or ATTAINGNANT, Pierre, a music printer of Paris in the 16th century, said to have been the first in France to adopt moveable types ('caractères mobiles') for music. The engraver of his types was Pierre Hautin. Between the years 1527 and 1536 he printed nineteen books containing motetts of various masters, French and foreign. Many of these composers would be entirely unknown, but for their presence in these volumes. Among them we may cite Grosse, N. Gombert, Claudin, Hesdin, Consilium, Certon, Rousée, Mouton, Hottinet, Mornable, Le Roy, Manchicourt, Le Heurteur, Vermont, Richefort, Lasson, L'heritier, Lebrun, Wyllart, Fenin, L'enfant, Montu, Verdelot, G. Louvet, Dévitis, Jacquet, Delafage, Longueval, Gascogne, Briant, and Passereau. The collection is thus historically most important, and it is also of extreme rarity. Attaignant was still printing in 1543, which date appears on a 'Livre de danceries' by Consilium. He was however dead in 1556, since some compositions of Gervais' printed at his press in that year are said to be edited by his widow.

[ F. G. ]

ATTERBURY, Luffman, one of the musicians in ordinary to George III, and the composer of numerous catches and glees. Between 1778 and 1780 he obtained from the Catch Club prizes for three glees and two catches. He also composed an oratorio called 'Goliah,' which was performed for the first time at the Haymarket Theatre on Wednesday, May 5, 1773, being announced as 'for that night only.' It was again performed in West Wycombe church on August 13, 1775, on the occasion of the singular ceremony of depositing