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like certain other branches of knowledge, in the books of Boethius, a Roman author of the 6th century, whose writings furnished the Dark Ages with some poor shreds of the science of the ancient world. The study of Boethius was a pedantic repetition of mathematical forms and proportions, in keeping with the spirit of scholasticism, and calculated to retard rather than advance the progress of the art. Although it was a common thing for the scholar in the Middle Ages to play upon an instrument or two (see e.g. Chaucer's Clerk of Oxenford in the 'Prologue'), it is probable that no practical acquaintance with music was originally required for a degree, but that the scholar had only to read in public a certain number of 'exercises' or discourses upon Boethius, a ceremony which held the place of examination in the Middle Ages. We cannot, however, speak with certainty; for the earliest mention of graduates in music, viz. Thomas Seynt Just and Henry Habyngton at Cambridge, dates no further back than 1463. Forty years later a more or less elaborate composition appears to be regularly demanded of candidates for a degree. In 1506 Richard Ede was desired to compose 'a Mass with an Antiphona,' to be solemnly sung before the University of Oxford on the day of his admission to the degree of Bachelor; and in 1518 John Charde was desired 'to put into the hands of the Proctors' a mass and antiphona which he had already composed, and to compose another mass of five parts on 'Kyrie rex splendens.' The statutes given to the University of Oxford by Laud in 1636 enact that every candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Music shall compose a piece for five voices with instrumental accompaniments, and have it publicly performed in the 'Music School'; and though the words in which the degree was conferred still contained a permission 'to lecture in every book of Boethius,' it would seem that music was more seriously and successfully cultivated at Oxford during the 17th century than it has been before or since. The torpor into which the English Universities fell during the 18th century affected the value of their musical diplomas. Compositions were indeed still required of candidates for degrees; but the absence of a bonâ fide examination rendered the degree of little value as a test of personal merit. The reforming spirit of our own day has however extended itself in this direction, and the following rules, depending in part upon the statutes of the Universities, in part upon regulations drawn up by the present professors in pursuance of the statutes, are now in force as to the degree of Bachelor of Music.

At Oxford the candidate must (1) pass a preliminary examination (partly in writing, partly vívâ voce) in Harmony and Counterpoint in not more than four parts. He has then (2) to present to the Professor of Music a vocal composition containing pure five-part harmony and good fugal counterpoint, with accompaniment for at least a quintett stringed band, of such length as to occupy from twenty to forty minutes if it were performed, no public performance however being required. (3) A second examination follows after the interval of half a year, embracing Harmony, Counterpoint in five parts, Canon, Imitation, Fugue, Form in Composition, Musical History, and a critical knowledge of the full scores of certain standard compositions. If the candidate is not already a member of the University, he must become so before entering the first examination; but he is not required to have resided or kept terms. The fees amount in all to about £18.

The Cambridge regulations are nearly to the same effect. There is, however, only one examination; and, in addition to the subjects given above, a knowledge of the quality, pitch, and compass of various instruments is required. The rules of Trinity College, Dublin, state that the degree of Bachelor of Music in that college is intended to show 'that a sound practical knowledge of music has been attained, sufficient to manage and conduct a choir, or to officiate in cathedral or church service.' The number of persons annually taking the degree of Mus. Bac. at Oxford has increased considerably during the last ten years; in 1866 the number was three, in 1874 eleven. There does not seem to have been a similar increase at Cambridge. The degree of Mus. Bac. does not exist in foreign Universities.

[ C. A. F. ]

BACHOFEN, Johann Caspar, born at Zurich, 1692, in 1718 singing-master in the Latin school, and cantor of one of the Zurich churches. Succeeded Albertin as director of the 'Chorherrn-gesellschaft' Association; died at Zurich, 1755. His hymns were very popular all over Switzerland, and his works give abundant evidence of his diligence and the wide range of his talent. (1) 'Musicalisches Halleluja oder schöne und geistreiche Gesänge,' etc. (no date), containing 600 melodies for two and three voices, with organ and figured bass. Eight editions down to 1767. (2) 'Psalmen Davids … sammt Füst und Kirchengesängen,' etc., 8vo., 1759 (second edition). (3) 'Vermehrte Zusatz von Morgen, Abend … Gesängen,' 1738. (4) Twelve monthly numbers containing sacred airs arranged in concert-style (concert-weise) for two and three voices; 1755 (4th ed.). (5) Brockes' 'Irdisches Vergnügen in Gott,' set to music; 1740 (1000 pages). (6) 'Musicalische Ergetzungen'; 1755. (7) 'Der für die Sünden der Welt,' etc. (Brockes' 'Passion'), 1759. (8) 'Music. Notenbüchlein,' an instruction-book in music and singing.

[ F. G. ]

BACK. The back of the instruments belonging to the violin-tribe appears to have two distinct functions. It has on the one hand to participate in the vibrations of the whole body of the instrument, and on the other to act as a sounding-board to throw back the waves of sound. This is why the back is usually made of hard wood (sycamore, or harewood), which although not as easily set into vibration as deal, the usual material for the belly, is better adapted