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and Callinet (afterwards Ducroquet, and later Merklin and Schütz), and built in 1845 a large organ for the church of St. Eustache, which was unfortunately destroyed by fire six months after its erection. He also repaired the fine organ of the church of St. Sulpice. Later the pneumatic lever came gradually into use in England. Barker is also the inventor of the electric action. He has returned to England, and at present (1878) resides in London.

[ W. H. H. ]

[App. p.530–1 "The following additional details were communicated by him to the writer. He learnt his art under Mr. Bishop, of London. His invention of the pneumatic lever was not adopted in the organs at York and Birmingham, for financial considerations. He went to France in 1837. Besides the organ of St. Denis, his pneumatic lever was applied to those of St. Roch and the Madeleine in Paris. He took out a brevet d'invention for it in 1839. About 1840 he became director of Daublaine & Callinet's factory, and at the Paris Exhibition of 1855 he received a first-class medal and the Cross of the Legion of Honour. His patent for electric organs was purchased by Bryceson of London. He remained with Merklin until 1860, when he set up a factory of his own under the firm of Barker & Verschneider, and built the organs of St. Augustin and of Montrouge in Paris, both electric. The war of 1870 caused him to leave Paris and return to this country, where he built the organs for the Catholic cathedrals of Cork and Dublin. He died at Maidstone Nov. 26, 1879."]

[ V. de P. ]

BARNARD, Rev. John, a minor canon of St. Paul's cathedral in the time of Charles I, was the first who published a collection of cathedral music. His work appeared in 1641 under the title of 'The First Book of Selected Church Musick, consisting of Services and Anthems, such as are now used in the Cathedrall and Collegiat Churches of this Kingdome. Never before printed. Whereby such Bookes as were heretofore with much difficulty and charges, transcribed for the use of the Quire, are now to the saving of much Labour and expence, publisht for the general good of all such as shall desire them either for publick or private exercise. Collected out of divers approved Authors.' The work was printed, without bars, in a bold type, with diamond headed notes, in ten separate parts—medius, first and second contratenors, tenor and bassus for each side of the choir, Decani and Cantoris. A part for the organ is absolutely necessary for some of the verse anthems in which intermediate symphonies occur, but it is extremely doubtful whether it was ever printed. From many causes—the wear and tear resulting from daily use in choirs, the destruction of service-books during the civil war, and others—it happened that a century ago no perfect copy of this work was known to exist, the least imperfect set being in Hereford cathedral, where eight of the ten vocal parts (some of them mutilated) were to be found, the bassus decani and medius cantoris being wanting. It so remained until January 1862, when the Sacred Harmonic Society acquired by purchase a set consisting also of eight vocal parts, including the two wanting in the Hereford set, and some also being mutilated. A duplicate of the bassus decani which had been with this set was purchased by the Dean and Chapter of Hereford, and a transcript of the imperfect medius cantoris was permitted by the society to be taken for them, so that the Hereford set still retains its pre-eminence. The work does not include the compositions of any then living author, the compiler in his preface declaring his intention of giving such in a future publication.

Its contents are as follows:—

Tallis, 1st Serv. 4 voices, D min.
N. Strogers, 4 v. D min.
E. Bevin, 4 and 5 v. D min.
W. Bird, 4, 5 and 6 v. D min.
O. Gibbons, 4 v. F.
W. Mundy, 4, 5 and 6 v. D min.
R. Parsons, 4, 5, 6 and 7 v. F.
T. Morley, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 v. D min.
Dr. Gyles, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 v. C.
[The above are Mg. and Ev. Services complete, and are each entitled '1st Service'.]
Mr. Ward, Mag. and N. D. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 v. G min.
Mr. Woodson, Te Deum, 4 v. D min.
Bird, 2nd Serv. with verses, Mag. and N. D. G min.
Bird, 3rd S., Mag. and N. D. 5 v. C.
Morley, 2nd S., Mag. and N. D. 5 v. G.
0. Gibbons, 2nd S., Mg. and Ev. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 v. D minor
Tallis, 1st Preces.
Do. 1st Ps. to do. Wherewithall.
Do. 2nd Ps., O doe well.
Do. 3rd Ps., My soul cleaveth.
Bird's 1st Preces.
Do. 1st I's. to do. O clap.
Do. 2nd Ps., Save me o God.
Do. 2nd Preces.
Do. 1st Ps. to do. When Israel.
Do. 2nd Ps., Hear my prayer.
Do. 3rd Ps., Teach me o Lord.
O. Gibbons, 1st Preces.
Do. Ps. to do. Thou openest.
Tallis, Responses, Prayer, etc.
Do. Litany.

Full Anthems, 4 parts.
Tallis, O Lord give thy H. Spirit.
E. Hooper, Teach me.
Farrant, Hide not thou.
Do. Call to remembrance.
J. Shepheard, Haste Thee.
Do. (2nd pt.) But let all.
W. Mundy, O Lord the maker.
Do. O Lord the world's Saviour.
O. Gibbons, Deliver us.
Do. (2nd pt) Blessed be.
O. Gibbons, Almighty & everlasting.
Batten, O praise the Lord.
Do. Hide not Thou.
Do. Lord we beseech Thee.
Do. Haste Thee o God.
Do. (2nd pt.) But let all those.
Do. When the Lord.
Dr. Tye. I will exalt Thee.
Do. (2nd pt.) Sing unto the Lord.
Do. Deus misereatur. [Divided into 3 little anthems.]

Full Anthems of 5 parts.
Tallis, With all our hearts.
Do. Blessed be Thy name.
E. Hooper, O Thou G. Almighty.
Tallis, I call and cry.
Mundy, O Lord, I bow.
Bird, Prevent us.
E. Hooper. Behold it is Christ.
Robt White, The Lord bless us.
Tallis, Wipe away.
Bird, God whom our offences.
Do. O Ld. make thy servant Chas.
Dr. Tye, I lift my heart.
Bird, O Lord turn.
Do. (2nd pt.) Bow Thine ear.
Dr. Giles, O give thanks.

Full Anthems for 6, 7, 8 parts.
Bird, Sing joyfully, 6 v.
R. Parsons, Deliver me, 6 v.
O. Gibbons, Hosanna. 6 v.
Do. Lift up your heads, 8 v.
Weelkes, Lord grant, 6 and 7 v.

Anthems with Verses.
Bird, O Ld. rebuke me not.
Do. Hear my prayer.
W. Mundy, Ah helpless wretch.
Morley, Out of the deep.
O. Gibbons, Behold Thou hast.
Batten, Out of the deep.
Ward, I will praise.
Bird, Thou God.
Do. Christ rising.
Do. (2nd pt) Christ is risen.
Dr. Bull, Deliver me.
Ward, Let God arise.

From the printed and manuscript parts, aided by other old manuscript organ and voice parts, Mr. John Bishop of Cheltenham has made a score of the work, which, it is to be regretted, remains unpublished. It is now in the British Museum.

Seven separate parts of the MS. collections made by Barnard for his work, comprising upwards of 130 services and anthems besides those included in the published work, are now in the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society.

[ W. H. H. ]

BARNETT, John, born at Bedford July 1, 1802 [App. p.531 "July 15"]. His mother was a Hungarian, and his father a Prussian, whose name was Bernhard Beer, which was changed to Barnett Barnett on his settlement in this country as a jeweller. In his infancy John shewed a marked predilection for music, and as his childhood advanced proved to have a fine alto voice. At the age of eleven he was articled to S. J. Arnold, proprietor of the Lyceum, Arnold engaging to provide him with musical instruction in return for his services as a singer. The young vocalist accordingly appeared upon the stage at the Lyceum, and continued a successful career until the breaking of his voice. During this time he was receiving instruction in music, first from C. E. Horn, and afterwards from Price, the chorus-master of Drury Lane. He wrote, while yet a boy, two masses [App. p.530 "one mass"] and many lighter pieces, some of which were published. At the expiration of his term with Arnold he took pianoforte lessons of Perez, organist of the Spanish embassy, and subsequently of Ferdinand Ries. From the latter he received his first real lesson in harmony.

His first essay for the stage was the musical farce of 'Before Breakfast' (Lyceum, 1825), the success of which induced him to continue the line he had commenced. Among the pieces he subsequently wrote may be enumerated 'Monsieur Mallet,' 'Robert the Devil,' 'Country Quarters,' 'Two Seconds,' 'The Soldier's Widow,' 'The Picturesque,' 'Married Lovers,' 'The Deuce is in her,' 'Charles the Twelfth' (which con-