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under Robert Wainwright, organist of the collegiate church, now the cathedral. He next removed to Eton and thence to Cambridge, where he became fellow and tutor of King's College. He then became private secretary to the Earl of Sandwich, first Lord of the Admiralty, and a well known musical amateur. About that time he conceived the plan of the Concert of Ancient Music which was established in 1776, Bates being appointed conductor. In 1780 he was appointed a commissioner of the Victualling Office, and married Miss Sarah Harrop, a pupil of Sacchini, and a favourite concert singer, who had studied under him the music of Handel and the elder masters. He next, in 1783, in conjunction with Viscount Fitzwilliam and Sir Watkin Williams Wynne, projected the Commemoration of Handel, which was carried into effect the following year, Bates officiating as conductor. He was afterwards appointed a commissioner of the Customs and a director of Greenwich Hospital. Having projected the Albion Mills, of the success of which he was so sanguine as to invest the whole of his own and his wife's fortunes in them, he was nearly ruined by their destruction by fire in 1791. In 1793 he resigned the conductorship of the Concert of Ancient Music. He died June 8, 1799. A fine painting of Joah Bates and his wife, by F. Coates, R. A., is in the possession of the Sacred Harmonic Society.

[ W. H. H. ]

BATES, William, a composer of the 18th century, produced music for the following dramatic pieces:—'The Jovial Crew,' comic opera, 1760; 'Pharnaces,' opera, 1765; 'The Ladies' Frolick,' an alteration of 'The Jovial Crew' (jointly with Dr. Arne), 1770; 'The Theatrical Candidates,' musical prelude, 1775. He was also the composer of 'Songs sung at Marybon Gardens, 1768,' and of several glees, catches, and canons, eleven of which are published by Warren. Also 'Flora, or Hob in the Well,' ballad opera, 1768; 'Songs sung at the Grotto-Gardens,' 1771. [See Catley, Anne.]

[ W. H. H. ]

BATESON, Thomas, one of the great English madrigalian composers of the Elizabethan period. The dates of his birth and decease are unknown; but we may infer that he was a young 'practitioner in the art' when he produced his 'First Set of Madrigals' in 1604, wherein he compares his compositions to 'young birds feared out of their nest before they be well feathered,' and hopes they will be 'so shrouded' in 'the leaves of his patron's good liking,' so that neither any 'ravenous kite nor craftie fowler, any open mouthed Momus or mere shy detractor may devour or harm them that cannot succour or shift for themselves.' At the back of the dedication to his 'honourable and most respected good friend Sir William Norres,' is the madrigal 'When Oriana walkt to take the ayre,' with the following note. 'This song was sent too late, and should have been printed in the set of Orianas' (a set of madrigals in praise of Queen Elizabeth, published in 1601). In 1599, five years prior to the date of his first publication, he was appointed organist of Chester Cathedral, which situation he held till 1611. [App. p.532 "He must have quitted Chester before 1611, as on Mar. 24, 1608–9, he 'was chosen Vicar-Chorall' of the Cathedral of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, commonly called Christ Church, Dublin, 'in ye room of Mr. Steven Robinson, late Vicar of the said Church. Who was also admitted and instaled the same daye.' And on April 5 following he 'had leave from the Dean and Chapter for one week more to pass into England about his own business.' In the latter entry he is described as 'Vicar and Organist of this Church.' He is supposed to have been the first person who took a degree in music in the University of Dublin. (Chapter acts, Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, vol. ii. p. 73)."] Shortly after this date he went to reside in Ireland, under the patronage of Lord Chichester, and in 1618 published his 'Second Set of Madrigals.' On the title-page of this work he styles himself 'Bachelor of Musick, Organist, and Master of the Children of the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Trinity, Dublin.' In the university of the latter, city he is supposed to have taken his degree. Bateson's first set of Madrigals was reprinted by the Musical Antiquarian Society, and specimens of his church music are in the same society's 'Anthems by Composers of the Madrigalian Era.' (The composer's works; Private Sources.)

[ E. F. R. ]

BATON, Charles, called 'le jeune' to distinguish him from his elder brother Henri, who performed on the musette. Was a player on the Vielle or hurdy-gurdy in Paris in the middle of the 18th century. He published an 'Examen de la lettre de M. Rousseau sur la musique Française' (Paris, 1754), and a 'Memoire sur la Vielle' in the 'Mercure' for 1757. He improved his instrument, and composed much for it—Suites for two vielles, musettes, etc. Baton died at Paris in 1758.

BATON (Fr. Bâton), the stick with which the conductor of an orchestra beats the time. Hence the expression 'under Mr. ——'s baton,' i. e. under his direction. The first baton employed in England was probably the 'Taktirstäbchen' used by Spohr at the Philharmonic in 1820 (Selbstbiog. ii. 87). Batons are usually turned out of maplewood for lightness, 21 or 22 inches long, and tapering from 3-4ths to 3-8ths of an inch in diameter. They are occasionally given as 'testimonials,' in which case they are made of metal or of ivory ornamented with silver or gold.

When Berlioz and Mendelssohn met at Leipsic in 1841 they exchanged batons, and Berlioz accompanied his with the following letter, in the vein of Fenimore Cooper:—'Au chef Mendelssohn. Grand chef! nous nous sommes promis d'echanger nos tomahawcks; voici le mien! Il est grossier, le tien est simple; les squaws seules et les visages pales aiment les armes ornées. Sois mon frère! et quand le Grand Esprit nous aura envoyés chasser dans les pays des àmes, que nos guerriers suspendent nos tomawcks à la porte du conseil.' Mendelssohn's reply is not extant, but no doubt it was quite à propos.

[ G. ]

BATTEN, Adrian, the date of whose birth is not known, was brought up in the Cathedral Choir of Winchester, under John Holmes the organist, and in 1614 appointed vicar-choral of Westminster Abbey. In 1624 he removed to St. Paul's Cathedral, where he held the same office in addition to that of organist. Batten's name is well known in our cathedral choirs from his short full anthem 'Deliver us, O Lord.' Burney says of him: 'He was a good harmonist of the old school, without adding anything to the common stock of ideas in melody or modulation with which the art was furnished long