103. Angelus Domini descendit. L. Leonius. 8 v.
104. Alleluia. H. Steuccius. 8 v.
105. Singet dem Herrn. M. Roth. 8 v.
106. Maria Magdalena. Anon. 8 v.
107. Dum rex gloriae. Anon. 8 v.
108. Exurgat Deus. A. Pacellus. 8 v.
109. Exivia patre. F. B. Dulcinus. 8 v.
110. Jam non dicam. F. Gabriel. 8 v.
111. O viri, o Galilaei. J.Croce. 8 v.
112. In nomine Jesu. Steffaninus. 8 v.
113. Hodie completi sunt. L. Valcampus. 6 v.
114. Hodie completi sunt. O. Catalanus. 8 v.
115. Dum complerentur. Pallavicinus. 8 v.
116. Veni Sancte Spiritus. N. Zangius. 8 v.
117. Intonuit de coelo. Aichinger. 6 v.
118. Invocamus te. Anon. 8 v.
119. Duo Seraphim. F. Croatius. 8 v.
120. O altitudo. F. Osculatus. 8 v.
121. Te Deum patrem. C. Valcampus. 6 v.
122. Tres sunt, qui. A. Pacellus. 8 v.
123. Tibi laus, tibi gloria. Anerius. 8 v.
124. Te Deum patrem. V. Bertholusius. 8 v.
125. Puer, qui natus est. C. Valcampus. 6 v.
126. Puer, qui natus est. H. Praetorius. 8 v.
127. Et tu puer. C. Vincentius. 8 v.
128. Euit homo. H. Praetorius. 5 v.
129. Tu es Petrus. M. Franck. 8 v.
130. Petre, amas me? L. Leonius. 8 v.
131. Audivi vocem de coelo. J. Bellus. 6 v.
132. Factum est praelium. J. T. Tribiolus. 6 v.
133. Factum est praelium. L. Balbus. 8 v.
134. Factum est silentium. C. Porta. 8 v.
135. Venit Michael. Anon. 8 v.
136. Cantabant sancti. B. Regius. 8 v.
137. Hi sunt,qui venerunt. H. Stabilis. 8 v.
138. Hic est vere. A. Agazzarius. 8 v.
139. Sanctis Apostolis. O. Zuchini. 7 v.
140. Audivi vocem Angelorum. L. Leonius. 8 v.
141. Gaudent in coelis. Demantius. 8 v.
142. Isti sunt Triumphatores. C. Bertus vei Demantius. v. 8.
143. Exultemus Domino. B Bagnius. 8 v.
144. Laudate Dominum, H. Perinus 7 v.
145. Jubilate Deo. B. Pallavicinus. 8 v.
146. Exultavit cor meum. N. Parma. 8 v.
147. Exultate Deo. A Savetta. 8 v.
148. Vespere autem Sabbathi. Anon. 8 v.
149. Laudate nomen Domini. J. Gabriel. 8 v.
150. Laudate Dominum. J. Croce. 8 v.
[ G. ]
BOEHM, organist at Wehlan in East Prussia about 1770, one of the latest composers whose chorales are included in the choral-books.
BOEHM, Elizabeth, singer, born at Riga 1756, made her first appearance 1783; afterwards married the tenor Cartellieri at Strelitz, from whom she separated, and married again Boehm the actor, under whose name she became one of the most favourite actresses of the Berlin national theatre. She was the first to play Donna Elvira in Berlin (1790). She died 1797.
BOEHM, Heinrich, born 1836 at Blasria in Bohemia, where his father was leader of the choir and composer of the opera of 'Krathonos' (Rübezahl). Heinrich himself has composed 35 operas and operettas in Bohemian, and his name is well known on the stage of that country.
BOEHM, Joseph, a violinist of repute, born at Pesth in 1798 [App. p.549 "1795"]. He was a pupil first of his father, and then of Rode, who took a lively interest in his talent. After having played with much success at Vienna in 1815 he travelled for several years in Italy, giving concerts in most of the principal towns. On his return to Vienna in 1819 he was appointed professor of the violin at the Conservatorium, which post he occupied till 1848. In 1821 he became a member of the imperial band, and retired in 1868. From 1823 to 1825 he travelled in Germany and France, earning applause everywhere for the soundness of his tone, his irreproachable technique, and his healthy musical style. But it is as a teacher that Boehm's name has won a permanent place in the history of modern violin-playing. For 50 years he resided at Vienna—(where he died, March 23, 1876 [App. p.549 "Mar. 28"])—devoting his powers to the instruction of his numerous pupils, among whom it will suffice to name Ernst, Joachim, L. Straus, Helmesberger, and Singer. In fact all the excellent violinists who during the last thirty years have come from Vienna were pupils either of Boehm or Mayseder, or both. These two masters appear to have supplemented each other by the different bent of their talents: Mayseder excelling chiefly by brilliant technique, while breadth of tone and thorough musical style were the prominent features of Boehm's playing.
He has published a number of compositions for the violin, polonaises, variations, a concertino, also a string-quartet, which however are of no importance.
[ P. D. ]
BOEHM, THEOBALD, a flute-player of distinction, and Kammer-musicus at Munich, born about the commencement of the present century [App. p.549 "April 9, 1794"]. Besides composing many brilliant works for his instrument, he introduced several notable improvements in its mechanism; especially a new fingering which bears his name, and was introduced in London about the year 1834. It has been found applicable also to the oboe and bassoon, and has been adapted by Klose to the clarinet, though with less success than in the other cases, owing to the foundation of the latter scale on the interval of a twelfth.
Its principal peculiarity is the avoidance of what are termed 'cross-fingered' notes; viz. those which are produced by closing a hole below that through which the instrument is speaking. For this purpose the semitone is obtained by pressing down the middle finger of either hand, and the corresponding whole tone, by doing the same with the forefinger. A large number of duplicate fingerings is also introduced, which facilitate passages previously impracticable. On the flute the system has the advantage of keeping different keys more on a level as regards difficulty: E major, for instance, which on the old eight-keyed instrument was false, uneven in tone, and mechanically difficult, is materially simplified. On the other hand it to a certain extent alters the quality of the tone, making it coarser and less characteristic. It also complicates the mechanism, rendering the instrument heavier, and more liable to leakage.
Boehm's method has been generally adopted by flute-players both in this country and abroad. Klose's modification applied to the clarinet is used in France for military bands; many of Böhm's contrivances are incorporated in the oboes of M. Barret as made by Triebert of Paris, and are figured under the heading Cor Anglais. Bassoons on this system are rarely to be met with. [See Flute; Gordon.]
[ W. H. S. ]
BOESENDORFER, Ludwig, a pianoforte-maker in Vienna. Ignaz Bösendorfer founded the firm in 1828. His son Ludwig succeeded him in 1859, and soon abandoning the cheaper build and mechanism identified with Vienna, that had influenced the technique of the Viennese school of pianists from the days of Mozart, adopted modern notions of tension and framing and an action of his own, grafting English principles