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the introduction of the instrument, was established by a harpsichord-maker, Burkhard Tschudi, a descendant of the Schwanden branch of the noble Swiss family of that name (Schweizerische Lexicon, art. 'Tschudi,' Zurich, 1795). In England he wrote his name Shudi, and established himself about the year 1732 at the house (afterwards No. 33) in Great Pulteney Street, Golden Square, the sign he adopted, before it was numbered, according to the custom of the time, being the 'Plume of Feathers.' Tschudi, originally a joiner, had been the pupil of Tabel, a Flemish harpsichord-maker settled in London, who had himself been taught in the famous house of Ruckers at Antwerp. Through merit and the recommendation of Handel, Tschudi was made harpsichord-maker to the royal family of England. A fine double harpsichord, made by him in 1740, was long preserved in Kew Palace, and is now in Windsor Castle. He was also patronised by Frederick the Great, two harpsichords made by Tschudi being still in the royal palace at Potsdam. Burney spoke of his tone being refined and delicate, and compared his instruments with those of his rival Kirkman, also a pupil of Tabel. Tschudi's only patent was taken out in 1769, for a Venetian swell to the harpsichord (see Venetian Swell), probably the invention of his son-in-law and partner John Broadwood, the latter a journeyman cabinet-maker who came from Scotland to London, found employment at Tschudi's, married Tschudi's daughter, and was taken into partnership by his father-in-law, who retired in 1773, but as late as 1794 the joint names appear as the style of the firm in a Musical Directory. About 1770 the first grand pianoforte made in London had been constructed by a Dutchman, Americus Backers, with the assistance of John Broadwood and his apprentice Robert Stodart. Backers died about 1781, recommending his action to John Broadwood's care; and, allowing for some change in the proportion of parts, it is the same Messrs. Broadwood still use, known on the Continent as the English action. In 1783 John Broadwood took out a patent for a change in the construction of the square pianoforte, by which the wrest-plank holding the tuning-pins was removed from the right-hand side, as in the old clavichord, to the back of the instrument. He also introduced the division of the bridge on the soundboard of the grand piano. These improvements were so important that they were afterwards everywhere adopted. John Broadwood died in 1812. His sons, James Shudi and Thomas Broadwood did much to extend the business, the former having recognised claims as a progressive pianoforte-maker. The continued history of the house is so intimately connected with the modern development of the instrument that further reference to it must be sought under Pianoforte. The present head of the firm (1877) is Mr. Henry Fowler Broadwood.

[ A. J. H. ]

BRODERIP, William, organist of Wells Cathedral about the commencement of the 18th century, contributed some things towards the store of cathedral music. A service and an anthem with orchestral accompaniments by him are included in the manuscript collection of church music made by Dr. Tudway for the Earl of Oxford, and now in the British Museum.

[ W. H. H. ]

BRONSART, Hans von, pianist and composer, born at Berlin, 1830, educated at Dantzic and at Berlin University. Studied harmony and composition under Dehn, and the piano, first under Kullak, and (1854–57) under Liszt at Weimar. After several years devoted to concert tours, Bronsart (1860–62) conducted the Euterpe concerts at Leipsic; in 65 became Director of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde at Berlin, and in 67 Intendant of the court theatre at Hanover, a post he still fills (1878). His chief works are a Pianoforte Trio in G minor, and a Pianoforte Concerto in F# minor—both much and successfully played by von Bülow, Sgambati, and others; Polonaise in C minor (Liszt's 'Das Klavier'); Frühlings-Fantaisie for orchestra, often performed; 'Christmarkt,' a Cantata for double choir and orchestra; Der Corsair (MS.), an opera, text from Byron; also an interesting pamphlet, 'Musikalische Pflichten.' In 1862 he married Ingeborg Starck, like himself a pupil of Liszt's. [See Starck.] In England Bronsart is only known by his Pianoforte Concerto, which was played at the Crystal Palace Sept. 30, 1876, by Hartvigson. [App. p.566 "In Sept. 1887 he was made Intendant at Weimar."]

[ E. D. ]

BROS, Juan, born at Tortosa 1776, died at Oviedo 1852, successively director at the cathedrals of Malaga, Leon, and Oviedo, and composer of much church music, still performed in the churches throughout Spain. Three Misereres written at Leon are cited as his best works. Specimens of his music are given by Eslava in the 'Lira Sacro-Hispano.'

[ M. C. C. ]

BROSCHI, Carlo; detto Farinelli. (See Farinelli.)

BROSSARD, Sebastien de, author of the first musical dictionary, published under the title of 'Dictionnaire de musique contenant une explication des termes grecs et latins, italiens et français les plus usités dans la musique,' etc. (Paris, Ballard, 1703, folio). There were two later editions, the second at Paris in 8vo., and the third by Roger of Amsterdam. The work contained a catalogue of 900 authors on music. Brossard was born in 1660, and was a priest at Strassburg, and chapel-master to the cathedral from 1689 to 1698. In 1700 he was appointed grand chaplain and musical director of the cathedral at Meaux, where he died Aug. 10, 1730. Janowka, a Bohemian, brought out a musical dictionary two years before Brossard's, but it was in Latin, like all such works at that time. Brossard's book being in French brought musical subjects within the range of the general reading public, and thus rendered an important service to art. It is not without faults, but contains an enormous amount of information to have been amassed by one man. Brossard also wrote 'Lettre à M. Demotz sur sa nouvelle méthode d'écrire le plain-chant et la musique' (Ballard, 1729). As a composer