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fingering, as well as the most minute nuances of tempo and expression, and has corrected presumable misprints and inaccuracies unique and invaluable to the student.

In addition to these his admirable partition de piano of the most intricate score in existence, Wagner's 'Tristan und Isolde,' together with that of the overture to 'Die Meistereinger' and 'Eine Faust Ouverture,' as well as the arrangements of Weber's two concertos and the concertstück for pianoforte solo should be mentioned.

In early youth Von Bülow seems to have shown neither talent for music nor delight in it. Both gifts first made their appearance after a long illness, but then in a supreme degree. After his ninth year he was placed under Friedrich Wieck, the father of Clara Schumann, who laid the solid foundations for his future technical achievements. M. K. Eberwein was for two years subsequently his master in harmony and counterpoint. In 1848 he came to the university of Leipzig to commence the study of jurisprudence, his parents having always looked upon music as a mere pastime. At Leipzig he continued his studies in counterpoint under Hauptmann. In Oct. 1849 we find him a member of the university of Berlin, absorbed in the political movements of the time, and contributor to a democratic journal 'Die Abendpost.' In this paper he first began to announce and defend the musical doctrines of the new German school led by Liszt and Wagner. A performance of 'Lohengrin' at Weimar in 1850 under Liszt moved him go intensely that he threw over his career as a lawyer, went to Zürich and entrusted himself to the guidance of Wagner. In June 1851 he went to Weimar to study pianoforte playing under Liszt, and in 1853 made his first concert tour, playing at Vienna, Pesth, Dresden, Carlsruhe, Bremen, Hamburg, and Berlin. From 1855 to 1864 he occupied the post of principal master of pianoforte playing at the conservatorium of Professors Stern and A. B. Marx, at Berlin. Here we find him organising trio soirées, orchestral concerts, and pianoforte recitals, with programmes of the most varied character, though with a decided leaning towards the works of the new German school, writing articles for various political and musical papers, making journeys through Germany and the Netherlands, and Russia, and reaping laurels everywhere as player and conductor. In 1864 he was called to Munich as principal conductor at the royal opera and director of the Conservatorium. It was there that he succeeded in organising model performances of Wagner's 'Tristan und Isolde' and 'Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg.' In 1869 he left Munich, and has since been giving concerts in Italy, Germany, Russia, Poland, England, and America. Among his most important compositions the following have been published:—op. 20, 'Nirwana, Symphonisches Stimmungsbild'; op. 10, Music to Sbakspeare's 'Julius Cæsar'; op. 16, Ballade for Orchestra, 'Des Sänger's Fluch'; op. 23, 'Vier Charakterstücke für Orchester, (1) Allegro risoluto, (2) Notturno, (3) Intermezzo guerriero, (4) Funerale.' Among his pianoforte pieces especial attention should be called to his recent op. 21, 'Il Carnovale di Milano.'

On Jan. 1, 1878, he was appointed Königlicher Hofkapellmeister at Hanover. [App. p.568 "he remained two years at Hanover, and was then appointed Hofmusikintendant to the Duke of Meiningen. During the five years of his tenure of this post he did wonders with the orchestra, forming it into an unrivalled body of players. Since his resignation of this appointment, in Oct. 1885, he has directed various sets of concerts in Berlin, St. Petersburg, etc., and has employed his exceptional talents as a teacher in the Raff Conservatorium at Frankfort, and in Klindworth's establishment in Berlin. He also conducted a Musical Festival at Glasgow in 1878. He has recently taken up his residence in Hamburg. (Died Feb. 12, 1894.)"]

[ E. D. ]

BUHL, Joseph David, born near Amboise 1781, trumpeter, son of a musician in the service of the Duc de Choiseul. He was successively a member of the band of the 'Garde Parisienne,' organised 1792, and of the Consuls' 'Grenadiers de la Garde.' He was also professor at the cavalry school of trumpeters at Versailles, from its foundation in 1805 to its abolition in 1811. In 1814 he was appointed by Louis XVIII conductor of the band of the Gardes du Corps, and received the Legion of Honour. In 1816 he became first trumpeter at the Opera, and at the Théatre Italien; but owing to an accident at the coronation of Charles X was compelled to relinquish both appointments in 1825. In 1823 Buhl introduced into France the slide-trumpet (à coulisse), invented by Haltenhoff of Hanau. He published a 'Method for Trumpet' (Paris, Janet), and was editor of the 'Ordonnance des Trompettes.'

[ M. C. C. ]

BULL, John, Mus. Doc., was born in Somersetshire about 1563 [App. p.568 "in 1562 (this date is proved by a portrait in the possession of Mr. Julian Marshall)"]. He was educated in Queen Elizabeth's Chapel under William Blitheman, the celebrated organist. On Dec. 24, 1582 he was appointed organist of Hereford Cathedral and afterwards master of the children. In January 1585 he was admitted a member of the Chapel Royal, and in 1591 on the death of his master is said to have succeeded him as organist. But this is mere conjecture, as John Hewlett succeeded Blitheman in the place of a gentleman, and the office of organist as a separate appointment did not then exist. On July 9, 1586, he was admitted Mus. Bac. at Oxford, 'having practised in that faculty fourteen years,' and on July 7, 1592, was incorporated Mtis. Doc. in the same University, having previously taken the degree at Cambridge. In 1596 [App. p.568 "on Nov. 30"], upon the recommendation of Queen Elizabeth, Bull was the first appointed Music Professor in Gresham College, and, although unable to compose and read his lectures in Latin, according to the founder's original intention, such was his favour with the Queen and the public, that the executors of Sir Thomas Gresham, by the ordinances bearing date 1597, dispensed with his knowledge of the Latin language and ordered 'The solemn music lecture twice every week, in manner following, viz. the theoretique part for one half-hour, or thereabouts, and the practique, by concert of voice or instruments, for the rest of the hour, whereof the first lecture should be in the Latin tongue and the second in English; but because at this time Mr. Dr. Bull, who is recommeuded to the place by ths Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, being not able to speak Latin, his lectures are permitted to be altogether in English, so long as he shall continue in the place of music lecturer there.' In 1601 Bull went abroad for the recovery of his