ginal score. In addition to the authors named, articles were furnished by Rochlitz, Chladni, Fink, and von Drieberg, and the whole formed a valuable record of the progress of the historical and theoretical departments of music during a quarter of a century. The practical portion of the art was not so well represented. In fact the great movement begun by Mendelssohn, and carried on by Schumann, Chopin, and others, not only received no recognition, but was treated with a certain covert hostility, and with the constant obtrusion of an obsolete and exaggerated worship of Mozart. In the first volume the publication of a mass by the Abbé Vogler (died 1814) was hailed as an event, and reviewed with laborious care. In the list of publications of the year contained in the 27th volume scarcely any mention is made of the works of either of the composers named above; and the notices are confined almost entirely to salon music and instruction books, chiefly those issued by the publishers of the magazine. Mendelssohn's 'St. Paul' (produced 1834 [App. p.574 "1836"]) is only cursorily mentioned, Chopin is rarely named, and Schumann not at all, though by the year 1848 he had composed many of his very greatest works. The earlier volumes of the Caecilia are of more value than the later ones in reference to practical music.
[ A. M. ]
CAECILIAN SOCIETY. This society was instituted in 1785 by a few friends who met weekly at each other's houses for the practice of hymns and anthems, but subsequently, having some instrumentalists among them, they united for the performance of sacred works on a more extended scale, and especially of Handel's oratorios. In 1791 an organ was erected in the society's room in Friday-street, and after meeting at Plasterers' Hall, Painters' Hall, Coachmen's Hall, and the Paul's Head, they obtained the use of Albion Hall, London Wall, where they met until the dissolution of the society in 1861. Among the works performed were all Handel's oratorios and secular compositions, Haydn's 'Creation' and 'Seasons,' Mozart's and Haydn's masses and Mendelssohn's 'Elijah.' W. Russell, sometime organist to the Foundling, composed for the society, of which he was a member, 'The Redemption of Israel' and the 'Ode to Music,' the words of the latter being supplied by Mr. Vincent. John Nightingale, Russell's successor at the Foundling, who became organist to the society, also composed a work for performance by the members. For many years the society gave the only performances of the oratorios of Handel and Haydn which could be heard (except during Lent at the theatres of Covent Garden and Drury Lane), and its work may be said to have been taken up by the Sacred Harmonic Society, which was founded a few [App. p.574 "nearly thirty"] years before the dissolution of the older body. The first conductor of the Society was Mr. Vincent, an amateur, who filled the office for upwards of thirty years, when he was succeeded by Mr. Walker, whose place was taken by his own son Joseph Walker. Mr. Shoubridge was the last conductor. Among the earlier members were some professional musicians who afterwards became famous, and who when they had left its ranks frequently came to assist in its performances. The society was almost entirely self-supporting, and the tickets of admission to the concerts were given by the members to their friends.
[ C. M. ]
CÆSAR, Julius, M.D., of an ancient family of Rochester, many of whom are interred in the cathedral there, was an amateur composer in the 17th century. Some catches by him appear in the collection entitled 'The Pleasant Musical Companion.'
[App. p.574 adds "he was probably the same Julius Cæsar who was a son of Joseph Cæsar, and a grandson of Dr. Gerard Cæsar of Canterbury, and who died at Strood on Apr. 29, 1712, aged 55."]
[ W. H. H. ]
CÆSAR, alias William Smegergill, was the composer of some songs published in 'Select Musicall Ayres and Dialogues, 1653. and other collections of the period.
[ W. H. H. ]
CAFARO, Pasquale, otherwise CAFFARO, and also known by his name of endearment CAFFARELLI, was born at Naples in 1708 [App. p.574 Feb. 8, 1706]. He was destined by his parents for a scientific career, but his bent towards music showed itself too strongly for contradiction, and he was entered at the Conservatorio della Pieta, at that time under the direction of Leonardo Leo. On the termination of his studies he became Maestro at the Chapel Royal of Naples, and in time Director of the Conservatorio as well. He died in 1787 [App. p.574 Oct. 23]. Grace, purity of style, and poverty of invention were the characteristics of his work. The following are among his best known productions:—Oratorio per l'Invenzione della Croce; Naples 1747. Ipermnestra; Naples 1751. La Disfatta di Dario; 1756. Antigono; 1754. L'Incendia di Troia; Naples 1757. Cantata a tre voci per festeggiare il giorno natalizio di Sua Maestà; Naples 1764. Arianna e Teseo; 1766. Cantata a tre voci, etc., etc.; Naples 1766. Il Cresco à Turin; 1768. Giustizia placata; 1769. Cantata a più voci per la Translazione di sangue di S. Januario; Naples 1769. L'Olimpiade; Naples 1769. Antigono, reset to fresh music; 1770. Betulia liberata. Il Figluolo prodigo ravveduto. Oratorio on S. Antonio of Padua. Il Trionfo di Davidde, Oratorio. In addition to these there are in existence by Cafaro many pieces of church music, consisting of masses, psalms, motets, etc., of acknowledged merit. An 'Amen' for 5 voices by him is included in Novello's 'Fitzwilliam Music.'
[ E. H. P. ]
CAFFARELLI, Gaetano Majorano, detto, was born at Bari, Naples, April 16, 1703. His father was a peasant, and for some time opposed his son's inclination for music at the expense of his ordinary tasks. Gaetano however, by his assiduous attendance at the musical services in a certain chapel, soon attracted the notice and favour of Cafaro or Caffaro (see above). This artist, recognising the genius of the boy, rescued him from the toil to which he was destined by his ignorant parents, sent him to Norcia to be prepared for the career of an evirato, according to the barbarous custom of those days; and, upon his return