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and was introduced to Gossec, who performed some of his symphonies at the Concerts Spirituels. These works, though very slight, were written with the flowing melody characteristic of Italian music, and created a highly favourable impression. During the ensuing twenty years, Cambini produced an enormous mass of music; 60 symphonies, 144 string-quartets, concertos for every variety of instrument, an oratorio, 'Le sacrifice d'Abraham' (Concerts Spirituels, 1774), and 12 operas, of which Fétis gives a list. He was conductor at the Theatre des Beaujolais (1788–1791), and of the Theatre Louvois (1791–1794). In 1804 he wrote some articles in the Leipsic 'Allgem. Musik. Zeitung,' and in 1810 and 1811 was joint-editor of the 'Tablettes de Polymnie.' Towards the end of his life Cambini maintained himself by arranging popular airs and other like drudgery, but even this resource failed him, and his last ten years were spent in the hospital of the Bicêtre, where he died in 1825. His best works were his quartets. He excelled so much in playing that style of music, that Manfredi, Nardini, and Boccherini, the three most eminent quartet players of that epoch, each chose him to play the viola with them. Cambini wasted in dissipation abilities which might have placed him in the foremost rank of musicians; and so little was he troubled with a conscience as to undertake to write some quartets and quintets in the style of Boccherini, which were published by Pleyel, indiscriminately with genuine compositions of that master.

[ M. C. C. ]

CAMBRIDGE. See Degree; Doctor; Professor.

CAMERA (Ital. 'chamber'). A sonata or concerto di camera was of secular character, and written for a room, and was so called to distinguish it from the sonata or concerto di chiesa, which was intended for performance in a church.

[ G. ]

CAMIDGE, John, born about [App. p.576 "in"] 1735, was, on the resignation of James Nares in 1756, appointed organist of the cathedral church of York, which he held until his death, April 25, 1803 [App. p.576 "until Nov. 11, 1799. He died April 25, 1803"], a period of about forty-seven [App. p.576 "forty-two"] years. [App. p.576 adds "John Camidge received his early education from Nares and he afterwards went to London, where he studied under Dr. Greene and took some lessons from Handel."] He published 'Six Easy Lessons for the Harpsichord.' His son Matthew was born in 1764 [App. p.576 "1758"], and received his early musical education in the Chapel Royal under Dr. Nares. On the death [App. p.576 "resignation"] of his father in 1803 [1799] he was appointed his successor as organist of York. He published a Collection of Tunes adapted to Sandys' version of the Psalms (York, 1789), and 'A Method of Instruction in Musick by Questions and Answers.' He [App. p.576 adds "resigned Oct. 8, 1842, and"] died Oct. 23, 1844, aged 80. His son John [App. p.576 adds "born 1790"] graduated at Cambridge as Bachelor of Music in 1812, and as Doctor in 1819. About 1828 he published a volume of Cathedral Music of his composition. He received the appointment of organist of York Cathedral on the death of his father in 1844 [App. p.576 "the resignation of his father in 1842"], having for many years previously discharged the duty. The present organ of the cathedral, one of the largest in England, was constructed chiefly under his superintendence. Early in 1859 he resigned his appointment, and died Sept. 31 following. [App. p.576 replaces this sentence with "In Nov. 1848 he became paralysed while playing evening service, and never recovered sufficiently to undertake the duty again. He died Sept. 21, 1859. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.)"]—The Camidges afford a singular example of three members of the same family (father, son, and grandson) holding successively the appointment of organist of the same cathedral for upwards of a century.

[ W. H. H. ]

CAMPAGNOLI, Bartolomeo, a violinist of great repute, born Sept. 10, 1751, at Cento, near Bologna. He learned the violin from Dall' Ocha, a pupil of Lolli's, from Guastarobba, of the school of Tartini, and afterwards from Nardini. While in the orchestra of the Pergola at Florence he made the friendship of Cherubini. He led the opera bands at Florence and Rome alternately for some years, and in 1776 became Capell-meister to the Bishop of Freysing. After two years he entered the service of the Duke of Courland at Dresden. From 1783 to 86 he was travelling in north Europe; in 88 he revisited Italy. From 1797 to 1818 he was conductor at Leipsic. In 1801 he visited Paris, renewed his acquaintance with Cherubini, and heard R. Kreutzer. On Nov. 6, 1827, he died at Neustrelitz. His works comprise concertos, sonatas, duets, and smaller pieces for the violin and flute, and a violin-school. His daughters, Albertina and Granetta, were well known as singers.

[ P. D. ]

CAMPANOLOGY (from campana and λογος), the art and mystery of Bells and Bell-ringing. See Bell, Change, Carillon, Cambridge Quarters, Chimes [App. p.576 added "Cambridge Quarters" to this list].

The following list of works on Campanology, published during the present century, is given in Rev. Woolmore Wigram's 'Change-ringing disentangled' (1871) as those most useful to ringers in general.

1. On the Bells themselves:—'Belfries and Ringers,' H. T. Ellacombe; 'Clocks and Bells,' E. B. Denison; 'Account of Church Bells,' W. C. Lukis.

2. On Change-ringing:—'Campanologia,' W. Shipway; 'Campanologia,' H. Hubbard; 'Change-ringing,' C. A. W. Troyte; 'Church Bells and Ringing,' W. T. Maunsell; 'Change-ringing,' W. Sottenshall.

[ G. ]

CAMPBELL, Alexander, an organist in Edinburgh, edited and published, in 1792, a collection of twelve Scots songs, with an accompaniment for the violin, and later a similar collection with an accompaniment for the harp. [App. p.576 adds "he was born in 1764 at Tombea, Loch Lubnaig, and that he and his brother John were pupils of Tenducci. Not long after the publication of his songs, he abandoned music and took to medicine, but subsequently fell into great poverty, and died May 15, 1824. (Dict, of Nat. Biog.)"]

[ W. H. H. ]

CAMPENHOUT, François van, born at Brussels 1780 [App. p.576 "Feb. 5, 1779"], died there 1848 [App. p.576 adds "April 24"], began his career in the orchestra at the Théâtre de la Monnaie. Having developed a high tenor voice he appeared on the stage at the same theatre. During the ensuing thirty years he sang in the chief towns of Holland, Belgium, and France, and made his farewell appearance at Ghent in 1827. He composed several operas, 'Grotius' (Amsterdam, 1808); 'Le Passe-partout' (Lyons, 1815); 'L'heureux Mensonge,' and others unpublished, besides songs, choruses, and church music. His name, however, is chiefly associated with the Brabançonne, which he composed at the time