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gave more pain than pleasure, and was soon withdrawn. In July 'La Clemenza di Tito' was given, Camporese sustaining the principal part of Sesto. Lord Mount-Edgcumbe declares that she gave more effect to it than Braham or Tramezzani. She sang also at the Ancient Music and Philharmonic Concerts. Owing to a mistake, she was not re-engaged for the opera, and she consequently went to Milan. After singing there and at other places in Italy, she returned in 1821 to London, with an engagement for the season at a salary of £1550, with extra allowance for costumes, permission to sing at concerts, and her salary paid in advance. Meanwhile she was welcomed in all ranks of society, even the most exclusive. She sang, March 10, in 'La Gazza ladra,' with the greatest éclat; but, thinking she could succeed in comic parts still more than in tragic, she attempted Zerlina, but had the good sense not to repeat the experiment. In 1822 she was again engaged, and appeared in 'Le Nozze di Figaro' and 'Otello'; and she sang also at the concerts at the Argyll Rooms. She appeared again at the King's Theatre in 1823, bringing out at her benefit Rossini's 'Riccardo e Zoraide,' in which opera she took her leave Aug. 5. In 1824 she again returned; but her voice was worn, and she could not bear comparison with Malibran and Sontag, then in full force. She prudently retired to Rome; but we find her singing in Rossini's 'Aureliano' and other operas at Ancona, 1827. Two years later she came once more to London, and sang in concerts; but her voice was gone, and her performance was not successful. She had a public benefit concert, with guinea tickets, June 12. She was still living in 1860 [App. p.576 "She died at Rome, 1839].

[ J. M. ]

CANARIE. A now antiquated dance, deriving its name from the Canary Islands, whence it is said to have been introduced, in which the two partners danced alternately before each other with the gestures of savages (Littré). It was greatly in vogue at the time of Louis XIV. According to some authorities, however, it is of Spanish origin. It is a species of gigue, usually in 3-8 or 6-8 time, the distinctive peculiarity of which is that the first note of the bar is almost always dotted. In this respect it resembles the Loure, but differs from it in its tempo, the Canarie being moderately quick and the Loure somewhat slow. It always commences on the first beat of the bar, and consists of two short periods, each repeated. The following example, dating from the 17th century, is quoted from F. L. Schubert's 'Die Tanzmusik':—

{ \time 6/8 \key d \major \relative d'' { \repeat volta 2 { d8. cis16 d8 a'4 g8 | fis8. e16 d8 cis8. e16 a,8 | d8. a16 c8 b4 a8 | fis a16 g fis e d4. } } }

A specimen may also be found, in 3-4 time by the way, in the second suite (or 'ordre,' to use the composer's own term) of the first book of Couperin's 'Pièces de Clavecin.'

[ E. P. ]

CANCAN, a word applied by modern slang to a peculiar way of dancing at public balls, which became popular in Paris shortly after 1830, and has even been brought on the stage in operettas. It is neither a national dance nor a characteristic step; but a mere succession of extravagant jumps, with loose and obscene gestures, introduced into the usual figures of the quadrille. According to Francisque Michel it is called cancan either because the performers are imitating the walk of a goose (or rather a duck—cane), or because they quack like that animal. It is more probably from the Latin word quamquam, a fruitful subject of squabbles in the schools of the Middle Ages, and written indifferently 'cancan' and 'quanquan.' French people still employ the expression 'faire un grand cancan de quelque chose,' in order to say 'much ado about nothing.'

[ G. C. ]

CANCRIZANS. This is a name given to canons by retrogression, on account of their crab-like motion—from the Latin word cancer, a crab. The German term is krebsweis. An example (from A. Andre's 'Lehrbuch der Tonsetzkunst') will best explain their construction.

{ \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 4/4 << \relative c'' { c2 d4 e | f8 g f e d4 c | b c d8 e f g | f4 e d2 | r4 g, e8 c d4 | e8 d e f e4 d | c b c8 d e d | c4 b c r \bar "||" }
\new Staff { \relative c' { r4 c b c | d8 e d c b4 c | d e f8 e d e | d4 c8 e g4 r | d'2 e4 f | g8 f e d c4 b | c d e8 f g f | e4 d c2 | } } >> }

Sometimes a canon is both cancrizans and by contrary motion—'Retrograde-inverse,' of which we give an example from Fétis's 'Traite du Contrepoint et de la Fugue.'

{ \time 4/2 \key f \major << \relative a' { r\breve | a1 g | a2 g c a | g1 c | r g | f2 a bes c | bes1 a | e\breve }
\new Staff { \clef alto \key f \major \relative c' { c\breve | f2 c bes g | f g a f' | e1 c | e r | r2 c bes a | bes g f f' | g\breve } }
\new Staff { \clef alto \key f \major \relative g' { g\breve | f2 f, g bes | a bes c r | r1 e | c e | f2 a g f | g bes c f, | c'\breve } }
\new Staff { \clef bass \key f \major \relative e { e\breve | a1 bes | c2 bes a f | g1 r | c g | a2 c g a | g1 a | r\breve } } >> }

The book should be turned upside down to show the retrograde and inverse structure.