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the end of 1736, for the 'London Daily Post' of Nov. 18 announces that 'Sga. Merighi, Sga. Chimenti, and la Francesina, had the honour to sing before Her Majesty, the Duke, and the Princesses at Kensington on Monday night, and met with a most gracious reception.' 'Faramondo' was only played five times. In 1738 Chimenti appeared as Atalanta in 'Serse,' which had no better fortune than Faramondo. She played also Absirto in 'La Conquista del Velo d'Oro' by Pescetti in the same year, after which her name is not found again.

[ J. M. ]

CHIMING. A bell is said to be chimed when she is swung through the smallest part of a circle possible so as to make the clapper strike; or when a separate hammer is fixed apart from her and she is struck by it. There are many different machines in use by which one man can chime any number of bells: of these the best, perhaps, is that invented by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe of Clyst St. George, Devon, which is put up by Messrs. Warner and Sons, Cripplegate, London. There are also such machines patented by nearly all good bell-founders.

The plan adopted in many towers of fastening the rope of the bell to the clapper for this purpose is a most dangerous practice and ought never to be allowed, many fine bells having been cracked in this way. Even if no actual damage is done the gear of the bell is twisted and strained by the misapplication of the rope. It is called 'Clocking' the bell.

CHINESE PAVILION, CHINESE CRESCENT, or CHAPEAU CHINOIS. This consists of a pole, with several transverse brass plates of some crescent or fantastic form, and generally terminating at top with a conical pavilion or hat, whence its several names. On all these parts a number of very small bells are hung, which the performer causes to jingle, by shaking the instrument, held vertically, up and down. It is only used in military bands, and more for show than use.

[ V. de P. ]

CHIPP, Edmund Thomas, Mus. Doc. Cantab., eldest son of the late T. P. Chipp (well known as the player of the 'Tower drums'), born Christmas Day, 1823, educated in her Majesty's Chapel Royal, St. James's. Studied the violin under Nadaud and Tolbecque, and entered the Queen's private band in 1844 [App. p.587 adds that "he was in the Queen's private band from 1843 to 1845"]. Became known as an organist of some repute, and in 47 succeeded Dr. Gauntlett at St. Olave's, a position he resigned on being elected organist to St. Mary-at-Hill, Eastcheap. On Mr. Best's retirement from the Panopticon, Mr. Chipp was chosen to succeed him as organist [App. p.587 gives date of appointment as 1855], and retained the appointment until the close of that institution. He was invited to become organist to Holy Trinity, Paddington [App. p.587 gives date of appointment as 1856], where he remained until his appointment as organist of the Ulster Hall, Belfast, in 62. In 66 he was appointed organist to the Kinnaird Hall, Dundee, and also to St. Paul's Church, Edinburgh. In the following year the position of organist and Magister Choristarum to Ely Cathedral was offered him, a position which he still (1877) occupies. [App. p.587 adds that "he took the degree of Mus. B. at Cambridge in 1859, and that of Mus. D. in 1860. He died at Nice, Dec. 17, 1886. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.)"]

The works produced by this composer are the Oratorio of 'Job'; 'Naomi, a Sacred Idyl'; a book of 24 sketches for the organ, and various minor works, songs, etc.

CHIROPLAST. An apparatus designed to facilitate the acquirement of a correct position of the hands on the pianoforte. It was the invention of J. B. Logier, and was patented in 1814.

It consisted of a wooden framework which extended the whole length of the keyboard, and was firmly attached to the same by means of screws. At the front of the keyboard, and therefore nearest the player, were two parallel rails, between which the hands were placed. The wrists could thus be neither raised nor lowered, but could only move from side to side. At a suitable elevation above the keys, and about six inches behind the parallel rails, was a brass rod extending the whole length of the framework, and carrying the so-called 'Finger Guides.' These were two brass frames, which could be moved along the rod to any part of the keyboard, each having five divisions, through which the thumb and four fingers were introduced. The divisions were formed of thin plates of metal, which exactly corresponded to the divisions between the keys of the instrument. They hung in a vertical position from the brass frames above mentioned to very nearly the level of the keys, and of course prevented the fingers from moving in any but a vertical direction.

To the top of each finger-guide was attached a stout brass wire with regulating screw, which pressing against the outside of the wrist, kept the hand in its proper position with regard to the arm. In addition, there was a board ruled with bass and treble staves, called the gamut board, to be placed on the music-desk, on which each note throughout the entire compass of the instrument was found written precisely above its corresponding key. This was believed to be of great service in teaching the names of the notes.

The chiroplast was designed to assist Logier in the instruction of his little daughter, seven years of age. He was then living in Ireland, and the result so fully answered his expectations that he determined to repair to Dublin (about 1814) and devote himself entirely to the propagation of his system. Here his success was so considerable, that he soon took the highest position as a pianoforte teacher.

His method included two novelties—the use of the chiroplast, and the plan of making several pupils, to the number of twelve or more, play at the same time on as many pianofortes. To this end he wrote a number of studies, which were published in his 'First Companion to the Royal Chiroplast,' and other works, in which several studies, of various degrees of difficulty, were capable of being played simultaneously. About this part of the method great diversity of opinion existed. Many critics could perceive nothing but evil in it. Spohr, however, in a letter written from London to the 'Allgemeine musikalische