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writers, every other player in England in tone and execution. In 1742 [App. p.594 "On Jan. 21, 1743–4"] however, owing probably to excessive practice, he became insane, and was confined in Bedlam Hospital, where, as Burney relates, 'it was long a fashionable, though inhuman amusement, to visit him there, among other lunatics, in hopes of being entertained by his fiddle or his folly. [App. p.594 adds that "he was discharged as cured on July 20, 1744, but again admitted on Dec. 15 of the same year. He was finally discharged Oct. 13, 1746. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.)"] Clegg appears also to have been a composer for his instrument, but no work of his has come down to us.

[ P. D. ]

CLEMENS NON PAPA, the sobriquet of Jacques Clement, one of the most renowned musicians of the 16th century. He was born in Flanders, and succeeded Gombert as chief Chapel-master to Charles V. Of the time and place of hia birth or death, or of any event of his life, nothing is known. It is probable that he spent several years in Italy; and it is certain that he died before 1558, since a motet on his death, by Jacob Vaët, is contained in a work published in that year ('Novum et insigne opus …' tom. I. Noribergae, 1558). Clement was one of the most prolific composers of his day. This man, whose very name is now known only to a few curious students, was the universal favourite of cultivated Europe, and his works, both sacred and secular, were printed and reprinted in every shape, from costly folios to cheap pocket editions. They formed the gems of the various collections published in Italy, Germany, Belgium, and France. Tho sobriquet itself is a proof of the reputation of the man, since it was intended to distinguish him from Pope Clement VI [App. p.594 "VII"], and in one of the chief collections of the time he is styled 'Nobilis Clemens non Papa.' Some of his works appeared in 1543 (Fétis), others in 1556—1560. Fétis enumerates 11 masses and 92 motets. Also four books of Flemish psalms (Souter Liedekens) and one of French chansons. Separate pieces will be found in the 'Liber primus Cantionum sacrarum' (Louvain, 1555); the 'Motetti del Labirinto' (Venice, 1554); and the 'Recueil des fleurs,' etc. (Louvain, 1569). Commer has published 43 of his motets and chansons, as well as the Flemish psalms (Collectio op. mus. batavorum). Proske has included three motets in his 'Musica Divina,' and winds up a notice of his life by the following remarks:—'He seems to have attempted all the styles then known. He was no slave to counterpoint, but for his time possessed an extraordinary amount of melodies and clear harmony. No one in his day surpassed him fur tunefulness and elegance, his melodies are far more fresh and pleasing than those of his contemporaries, and his style is easy, simple, and clear. That he often pushed imitation too far and neglected the due accentuation of the text is only to say that he belonged to the 16th century.'

[ G. ]

CLÉMENT, Felix, born at Paris Jan. 13, 1822, composer, and writer on musical history and archaeology. His most important published compositions are choruses for Racine's 'Athalie' and 'Esther.' For several years he contributed largely to Didron's 'Annales archéologiques,' thus preparing himself for his 'Histoire génerale de la Musique religieuse' (Paris, 1861), in which are included translations from Cardinal Bona's treatise 'De divina Psalmodia' and Formby's 'Gregorian chant compared to modern music.' He has edited several books of religious music for the Roman church, such as 'Eucologe en musique selon le rit parisien' (Paris, 1843 and 1851); 'Le Paroissien romain' (Paris, 1854); and 'Chants de la Sainte Chapelle.' His 'Méthode compléte de Plain-Chant' does not contain anything new, but is clear and orderly. His 'Méthode d'orgue' exhibits a moderate knowledge of thorough bass and fugue. M. Clément's most useful compilation is his 'Dictionnaire lyrique,' a convenient list of operas on the plan of Allacci's 'Drammaturgia,' compiled from Babault's 'Dictionnaire géneral des Théâtres' and similar works, not without occasional errors and omissions. Two supplementary parts have been issued, bringing the work down to 1873. He has also published 'Les Musicians célèbres depuis le 16ème siecle' (Paris, 1868, 42 portraits). [App. p.594 "date of death, Jan. 23, 1885."]

[ G. C. ]

CLEMENT, Franz, an eminent violin-player, was born in 1780 at Vienna, where his father was butler in a nobleman's establishment, and at the same time, after the fashion of the period, a member of his master's private band. His father and Kurzweil, the leader of another nobleman's band, were his teachers. Clement began to play the violin when he was only four, and at the age of seven made his first successful appearance in public at a concert in the Imperial Opera-house. He soon began to travel with his father, and in 1790 came to London, were he gave very successful concerts, some of which were conducted by Haydn and Salomon. He also played at Oxford at the second concert given in celebration of Haydn's installation as Doctor of Music. Having returned to Vienna he was appointed Solo-player to the Emperor, and in 1802 conductor of the newly established theatre 'an der Wien,' which post he retained till 1811. From 1812 to 1818 he travelled in Russia and Germany, and then again for three years conducted the Opera in Vienna. In 1821 he began to travel with the celebrated singer Catalani, conducting her concerts, and also was for a short time conductor of the Opera at Prague. He died in poor circumstances at Vienna in 1842.

Clement was not only a remarkable violin-player, but an unusually gifted musician. Some curious facts are reported, bearing testimony to his general musical ability and especially to his prodigious memory. Spohr, in his Autobiography, relates that Clement after having heard two rehearsals and one performance of the oratorio 'The Last Judgment,' remembered it so well, that he was able on the day after the performance to play several long pieces from it on the piano without leaving out a note, and with all the harmonies (no small item in a composition of Spohr's) and accompanying passages; and all this without ever having seen the score.