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1821 he appeared as a singer at the oratorios at Drury Lane Theatre, but failed from nervousness. In 1823 he resigned the organistship of St. Helen's for that of Quebec Chapel, Portman Square. Cutler's compositions comprise a service, anthems, songs, and numerous pianoforte pieces. [App. p.602 "he is last heard of as giving a grand concert at the Opera House on July 5, 1824. The date of his death is unknown."]

[ W. H. H. ]

CUVILLON, Jean Baptiste Philémon de, a distinguished violinist, was born at Dunkirk in 1809. As a pupil of the Paris Conservatoire he studied the violin under Habeneck sen. and Baillot, and composition under Reicha. He is considered as one of the best representatives of the modern French school of violin-playing at Paris, where he occupies the post of professor of the violin at the Conservatoire. He is mentioned in Killer's 'Mendelssohn,' pp. 20, 21.

[ P. D. ]

CUZZONI, Francesca. See Sandoni.

CYMBALS are a pair of thin round metal plates, with a leather strap through the centre of each, by which the performer holds one in each hand. The metal is an alloy of 80 parts of copper to 20 of tin. To produce a good tone they should not be struck so as to coincide together, but should rather be rubbed against each other in a single sliding motion (French froisser). The part for the cymbals is generally, but not always, the same as that for the bass-drum, and, from motives of economy, it is generally played by the same performer. One cymbal is then tied to the drum, and the other held in his left hand, while his right hand uses the drum stick. [Piatti.]

[ V. de P. ]

CZAKAN, or Stockflöte, a Bohemian or Transylvanian instrument of the flageolet family, usually standing in the key of A, though made to other pitches. It is said to have been lost for many years after its original invention, and to have been rediscovered in a Transylvanian monastery in 1825. However this may be, it rose to great popularity at Vienna about 1830, and received many additions and improvements. It consisted of a large flageolet mouthpiece, with a long slender body, bored with an inverted conical tube like that of the old flute, at right angles to the mouthpiece. It thus resembled an ordinary handled walking-stick, and indeed was commonly put to that use. It had the octave scale of the old concert flute, with fingering intermediate between that and the oboe. There was also a small vent-hole for the thumb at the back, as in the flageolet. It possessed about two octaves compass, starting from the low B of the flute. There exists a Method for this almost forgotten instrument by Krämer dated 1830. Its music appears to have been written in the key of C.

[ W. H. S. ]

CZAR UND ZIMMERMANN. Opera in 3 acts, by Lortzing; produced in Berlin 1854 [App. p.602 "1837"], and at the Gaiety Theatre, London, translated, as 'Peter the Shipwright,' April 15, 1871.

CZERNY, Karl, excellent pianoforte teacher and prolific composer, born at Vienna Feb. 21, 1791. His father, a cultivated musician, taught him the pianoforte when quite a child, and at the age of ten he could play by heart the principal compositions of all the best masters. He gained much from his intercourse with Wenzel Krumpholz the violinist, a great friend of his parents, and a passionate admirer of Beethoven. Having inspired him with his own sentiments, Krumpholz took his small friend to see Beethoven, who heard him play and at once offered to teach him. Czerny made rapid progress, and devoted himself especially to the study of the works of his master, whose friendship for him became quite paternal. Czerny also profited much by his acquaintance with Prince Lichnowsky, Beethoven's patron; with Hummel, whose playing opened a new world to him; and with Clementi, whose method of teaching he studied. He was soon besieged by pupils, to whom he communicated the instruction he himself eagerly imbibed. In the meantime he studied composition with equal ardour. Czerny was always reluctant to perform in public, and early in life resolved never to appear again, at the same time withdrawing entirely from society. In 1804 he made preparations for a professional tour, for which Beethoven wrote him a flattering testimonial, but the state of the continent obliged him to give up the idea. Three times only did he allow himself to travel for pleasure, to Leipsic in 1836, to Paris and London in 1837, and to Lombardy in 1846. He took no pupils but those who showed special talent; the rest of his time he devoted to self-culture, and to composition and the arrangement of classical works. His first published work '20 Variations concertants' for pianoforte and violin on a theme by Krumpholz, appeared in 1805. It was not till after his acquaintance with the publishers Cappi and Diabelli that his second work, a 'Rondo Brillante' for four hands followed (1818). From that time he had difficulty in keeping pace with the demands of the publishers, and was often compelled to write at night after giving 10 or 12 lessons in the day. From 1816 to 1823 Czerny had musical performances by his best pupils at his parents' house every Sunday. At these entertainments Beethoven was often present, and was so charmed with the peaceful family life he witnessed, as to propose living there entirely; the project however fell through owing to the illness of the parents. One of Czerny's most brilliant pupils was Ninette von Belleville, then 8 years old, who in 1816 lived in the house, and afterwards spread the fame of her master through the many countries in which she performed. She married Oury the violinist, and settled in London. She was followed by Franz Liszt, then 10 years old, whose father placed him in Czerny's hands. The boy's extraordinary talent astonished his master, who says of him in his autobiography 'it was evident at once that Nature had intended him for a pianist.' Theodor Döhler and a host of other distinguished pupils belong to a later period. About 1850 Czerny's strength visibly declined; his health gave way under his never-ceasing activity, and he was compelled to lay aside his