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the first portion is to be played over again as a conclusion. In airs the direction is often Dal Segno—'from the sign'—the sign being a Dal segno.png at the beginning of the first portion. In scherzos and minuets, with trios, the direction at the end of the trio is usually 'Scherzo, or Minuetto, D.C. senza repetizione.' The first known occurrence of Da Capo is in Tenaglia's opera of 'Clearco' (1661) [App. p.604 "Cavalli's opera of 'Giasone' (1655)"].

DACHSTEIN, Wolfgang, Roman Catholic priest at Strassburg, adopted the Reformed principles in 1524, married, and became vicar and organist of St. Thomas's Church there. He is known chiefly as a composer of chorales, especially 'An Wasserflüssen Babylon.'

[ M. C. C. ]

DACTYL, a metrical 'foot' (

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \new RhythmicStaff \stopStaff s4\tenuto s\lheel s\lheel }

), exactly expressed by the original word δάκτυλας, a finger—one long joint and two short ones. A fine example of dactyls in instrumental music is in the slow movement of Beethoven's 7th Symphony, alternately with spondees, or alone:—

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 2/4 \relative e' { e4 e8 e | e4 e | e e8 e | e4 e \bar "||" \clef bass a,, a'8 a | a,4 a'8 a } }


DALAYRAC, Nicolas, a celebrated French composer, was born at Muret (Languedoc) in 1753 [App. p.604 "June 13"]. His father occupied a high civil appointment in his province, and in spite of his son's early passion for music destined him for the bar. His studies of the violin were put a stop to, and it is said that the young enthusiast, in order to play without interruption, used every night to ascend the roof of the house. This however interfered with the nocturnal exercises of a neighbouring nunnery. But the complaints of the pious damsels addressed to his father ultimately led to the fulfilment of young Dalayrac's dearest wish. His aversion to the law was considered conclusive, and he was sent in 1774 to Paris, where a commission in the guards of the Count of Artois had been obtained for him. But the love of his art was proof against the attraction of a military career. Immediately on his arrival in the capital he took lessons in harmony from Langlé, and soon made his début as a dramatic composer with a comic opera called 'Le petit Souper,' first performed at the French court in 1781. Encouraged by this success, he produced in the following year an opera, 'L' Eclipse totale,' at the Opera Comique. This also was successful, and secured Dalayrac's position amongst the best and most fertile composers of his time. He continued for the remainder of his life producing operas at the rate of one or two a year. Not even the Reign of Terror interrupted or in any way influenced the inexhaustible productiveness of his pen. Two of his most charming operas, 'L'actrice chez elle' and 'Ambroise, ou Voilà ma journée,' bear the terrible date of 1793. In 1790 he lost much of his property, but in spite of this misfortune he refused to avail himself of his father's will, which excluded his younger brother from a share in the family property. At the beginning of the century he was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honour by Napoleon, and he died in 1809 [App. p.604 "Nov. 27"] at Paris. Of the numerous works of Dalayrac none have survived. The titles of the more important ones may be cited:—'Le Corsaire' (1783), 'L'Amant Statue' (1785), 'Nina' (1786), 'Azeinia' (one of his best works, first performed on May 3, 1787), 'Raoul de Créqui' (1789), 'Fanchette' (same year), 'Adèle et Dorsan' (1794), 'Adolphe et Clara' (1799), 'Maison à vendre' (1800), 'Une Heure de Marriage' (1804), 'Le Poète et le Musicien' (first performed in 1811, two years after the composer's death), and many others.

Amongst the earlier composers of the modern French school of dramatic music Dalayrac takes a high position. To us his means of expression appear primitive, but considering the date of his earlier works, his skill in orchestral treatment, and his keen perception of dramatic effects and proprieties, are by no means of a despicable order. The opéra comique, consisting of simple airs and short ensembles, was his favourite mode of production. Such a work as the one-act operetta 'Maison à vendre' is not deprived of a certain archaic charm even at the present day. Lise's song 'Fiez vous,' with which it opens, a piece of music much affected by our great-grand-mothers, is a charming specimen of the French romance, and the finale of the same work is remarkable for the skilful and fluent treatment of the vocal parts. The same feature is noticeable in his more elaborate compositions, as for instance in the finale of 'Azémia,' which winds up with a charming bit of choral writing. It may briefly be said that Dalayrac's style contains, although in a somewhat embryonic stage, all the qualities which have made the French school justly popular in Europe. He is a unit amongst a galaxy of brilliant stars. His claim to remembrance lies perhaps less in his individual merits than in the fact that without him and other composers of his type and epoch there would have been no Grétry, no Auber, and no Boieldieu.

[ F. H. ]

DALLAM (spelt also Dalham, Dallum, and Dallans), the name of a family of English organ-builders in the 17th century. The eldest was employed in 1605–6 to build an organ for King's College, Cambridge, for which purpose he closed his workshop in London and removed his whole establishment to Cambridge. He and his men were lodged in the town, but boarded in the College Hall. Dr. Rimbault ('History of the Organ') gives a very curious account of every item paid for building this organ. It was destroyed in the time of the Long Parliament, but the case, with some alterations, remains to this day. This Dallam's Christian name does not appear in the 'college books, but he is most probably identical with Thomas Dallam, who built an organ for Worcester Cathedral in 1613. [App. p.604 "Thomas Dallam came to London from Dallam in Lancashire, and was apprenticed to a member of the Blacksmith's company, of which he afterwards became a liveryman. The organs which he built for King's College, Cambridge, and for Worcester Cathedral, were taken down at the time of the civil war; parts of the former are said to be contained in the existing instrument. He was in all probability the same Dallam who in 1615, 1632 and 1637 was employed to repair the organ of Magdalen College, Oxford."] The three following were probably his sons:—

Robert, born 1602, died 1665, and buried in the cloisters of New College, Oxford, for which college he built the organ; but his principal work was that of York Minster, since destroyed by fire. He also built similar organs for the cathedrals of St. Paul and Durham.

[App. p.604 "He was, like his father, a member of the Blacksmith's company. Between 1624 and 1627 he built the organ of Durham Cathedral, which remained till 1687, when Father Smith, after putting in four new stops, sold the Choir Organ for £100 to St. Michael's-le-Belfry, York. It remained there until 1885, when it was sold for £4 to an organ builder of York. It is said that Dallam received £1000 for the original organ, but there is no foundation for the statement. In 1634 he built an organ for Jesus College, Cambridge, in the agreement for which he is called 'Robert Dallam of Westminster.' He added pedals in 1635; the organ, after being taken down at the time of the civil war, was replaced at the Restoration. In 1635 he built an organ for Canterbury Cathedral. The Calendar of State Papers for the same year contains a bill of Robert Dallam's, dated Nov. 12, for work done to Laud's organ at Lambeth. An organ which he built for St. Mary Woolnoth's was so much injured in the fire of London, that it was replaced by a new instrument built by Father Smith, who, however, used some of Dallam's tops. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.; Hopkins and Rimbault, 'The Organ,' 3rd ed.) [See vol. ii. pp. 588–591.]"]

[ W. B. S. ]