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vocum' (Augsburg 1545), and a six-part motet 'Tua est potentia' in the 'Selectissimae cantiones ultra centum' (Augsburg 1540). Also two books of madrigals for 4, 5, and 6 voices were published by Gardano (Venice 1559).

Notwithstanding the new school of composers, already well established in Rome, with Costanzo Festa, Arcadelt, etc. at its head, there were still many conservative musicians in that city, and Dankerts was one of them, who adhered strictly to the old Netherland school, and remained uninfluenced by the new art that had grown up around them. He gained great celebrity as judge in the dispute between two ecclesiastical musicians, Vicentino and Lusitano, upon the nature of the scales on which the music of their time was constructed. Dankerts was obliged to defend his verdict against Vicentino, in a learned and exhaustive treatise on the matter in dispute, the original MS. of which is preserved in the Vallicellan library at Rome. A full account of this controversy is given by Hawkins.

DANNELEY, John Feltham, born at Oakingham in 1786, was the second son of a lay-clerk of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. At fifteen years of age he studied thorough bass under Samuel Webbe, and the pianoforte first under Charles Knyvett and afterwards under Charles Neate. He resided with his mother at Odiham until he reached his twenty-sixth year, when he established himself at Ipswich as a teacher of music, and in a few years became organist of the church of St. Mary of the Tower in that town. In 1816 he visited Paris, and studied under Antoine Reicha. Danneley published in 1825 'An Encyclopaedia, or, Dictionary of Music,' and in 1826 'A Musical Grammar.' He died in London in 1836.

[ W. H. H. ]

DANNREUTHER, Edward, born Nov. 4, 1844, at Strassburg. When five years old was taken to Cincinnati, U. S., where he learned music from F. L. Ritter. In 59 entered the Conservatorium at Leipzig, and remained there till 63, under Moscheles, Hauptmann, and Richter. His career was very brilliant, and he held all the scholarships of the Conservatorium. From Leipzig he removed to London, where he has since resided (excepting two professional visits to the United States), and is one of the most prominent musicians of the metropolis, well known as a pianoforte-player and teacher, littérateur and lecturer, and a strong supporter of progress in music. He is especially known as the friend and champion of Wagner. He founded the Wagner Society in 1872, and conducted its two series of concerts in 73 and 74. He was also a warm promoter of the 'Wagner Festival' in 1877, translated his 'Music of the Future' (Schott 1872), and received Wagner in his house during his stay in London. He was the first to play the concertos of Liszt and Tschaikowsky (Crystal Palace, Jan. 27, 72; Nov. 21, 74; March 11, 76).

But while Mr. Dannreuther is an earnest apostle of the new school, he is no less zealous for the old, as the range of the programmes of his well-known chamber concerts, his own able interpretations of Bach and Beethoven, his lectures on Mozart, Beethoven, and Chopin, his article on Beethoven in Macmillan's Magazine (July, 76), and other acts and words abundantly prove. He has not yet published any music.

DANZI, Francesca. See Lebrun, Madame.

DANZI, Franz, composer and violoncellist, born at Mannheim 1763 [App. p.608 "May 15"], studied chiefly under his father, first violoncellist to the Elector Palatine, and in composition under the Abbé Vogler. At 15 he was admitted into the Elector's band. In 1778 the band was transferred to Munich, and there Danzi produced his first opera 'Azakiah' in 1780, which was followed by 'Der Kuss,' 'Iphigenia,' and others. In 1790 he married Marguerite Marchand, a distinguished singer, and in the following year started with her on a professional tour which lasted six years. At Prague and Leipsic he conducted the performances by Guardassoni's Italian company, and his wife was especially successful in the parts of Susanna in 'Le Nozze di Figaro,' and Caroline, and Nina, in 'Il Matrimonio Segreto.' They were also favourably received in Italy, especially at Venice and Florence. In 1797 they returned to Munich, where Mdme. Danzi died in 1799. Her husband soon after resigned his post of vice-chapel-master to the Elector. In 1807 he was appointed chapel-master to the King of Würtemberg, but was soon compelled to leave Stuttgart on account of the political changes in that part of Germany. He then became chapel-master at Carlsruhe, where he remained till his death in 1826 [App. p.608 "April 13"]. He composed 11 operas, besides a mass of orchestral, chamber, and church music. For list see Fétis. None of it has survived. He was a sound musician, but strained too much after orchestral effects. He was an excellent teacher of singing, and his 'Singing Exercises' were used for long after his death and form his most permanent work.

[ M. C. C. ]

DARGOMYSKI, Alexander Sergovitch, Russian noble and composer, born 1813 [App. p.608 "Feb. 2"] near Toula, Smolensk. He early manifested a taste for music, and at seven composed little sonatas etc. for the pianoforte. He afterwards learnt the violin, and studied harmony and counterpoint under Schoberlechner. In 1830 he appeared with great success in Petersburg as a pianist, and in 31 received an appointment in the Emperor's household, but in 35 gave it up, and devoted himself for eight years to severe study. His intimate friendship with Glinka and with the dramatic poet Kukolnik were of great service to him. In 1845 he visited Germany, Brussels, and Paris. In 1847 he produced in Moscow, with brilliant success, an opera 'Esmeralda,' libretto from Victor Hugo's 'Notre Dame de Paris,' which he had composed in 1838, and which was repeated in Petersburg. Besides 'Esmeralda,' 'Rusalka' (Petersburg 1856), and 'Kozacek,' which have kept their place on the stage, his published works consist of 60 songs with pianoforte accompaniment; variations, fantasies, etc.