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DERING, Richard, Mus. Bac., a member of the ancient Kentish family of that name, was educated in Italy. He returned to England with a great reputation as a musician, and for some time practised his profession in London. In 1610 he took the degree of Bachelor of Music at Oxford. Being strongly importuned thereto he became organist to the convent of English nuns at Brussels [App. p.612 "1617"]. Upon the marriage of Charles I, in 1625, Dering was appointed organist to the queen, Henrietta Maria, which office he continued to hold until she was compelled to leave England. He died in the Romish communion about the year 1658 [App. p.612 "early in 1630"]. Bering's published works are wholly of a sacred kind. They consist of 'Cantiones Sacræ quinque vocum cum basso continuo ad Organum,' Antwerp, 1597; 'Cantica Sacra ad Melodium Madrigalium elaborata senis Vocibus,' Antwerp, 1618; 'Cantica Sacra ad Duos & Tres Voces, composita cum Basso-continuo ad Organum,' London, 1662. On the title-page of this work, which is dedicated to the Queen Dowager, Henrietta Maria, Dering is styled 'Regiæ Majestatis quondam Organista.' In 1674 Playford published a second set of Cantica Sacra by various composers, in which are eight motets attributed to Dering, but which Playford, in his preface, candidly admits were 'by some believed not to be his.' In the library of the Sacred Harmonic Society are preserved in manuscript imperfect sets of parts of the following compositions by Dering: anthem, 'Unto Thee, O Lord'; madrigal, "The Country Cry'; some motets, and several fancies for viols. [App. p.612 "his earliest production is probably the first instance of the use of figured bass."]

[ W. H. H. ]

DESERTEUR, LE, a musical drama in 3 acts, words by Sedaine, music by Monsigny—his best; produced at the Theatre des Italians March 6, 1769, and revived at the Opéra Comique Oct. 30, 1843.

DETTINGEN TE DEUM, THE, written by Handel to celebrate the victory of Dettingen (June 26, 1743). 'Begun July 1743'; first performed (not at the thanksgiving service July 28, but) at the Chapel Royal, St. James's, Nov. 27, 43. Many of the themes and passages are from Urio.

DEUS MISEREATUR is the psalm (lxvii.) used in the evening service of the Anglican church after the lessons, alternatively with the Nunc Dimittis. It is considered as a 'responsory psalm' in conformity with the 17th canon of the Council of Laodicea, which appointed lessons and psalms to be read alternately.

In the ancient church the psalm was used at Lauds, and in the Sarum use it was coupled with the bidding prayer on Sundays. Nevertheless it is not in Cranmer's Prayer-Book of 1549, and consequently has no special chant given for it in Marbecks 'Book of Common Prayer Noted,' of 1550. It was appointed as an alternative to the Nunc Dimittis in the revised edition of the Prayer-Book, 1552. Like its fellow, the 98th Psalm, it is not so often used as the 'Nunc Dimittis,' partly because it seems less appropriate than that canticle, and partly because it is longer.

Settings of it are comparatively rare. To take for example the most famous ancient collections of services; there is only one setting in Barnard's collection, viz. that by Strogers; there are three in Boyce's, and only two in Arnold's. With regard to the setting in Barnard's collection, it is worth remarking that there is a quaint note at the end of the index suggesting that it should be sometimes used as an anthem.

DEUX JOURNÉES, LES. Comédie lyrique in 3 acts, words by Bouilly, music by Cherubini; produced at the Théatre Feydeau Jan. 16, 1800. Translated into German as 'Der Wasserträger,' [App. p.612 "'Die Tage der Gefahr,' and 'Graf Armand, oder die zwei unvergesslichen Tage.' Refer to Water Carrier"] and into English as 'The Escapes; or, the Water Carrier'; produced, in a very mutilated state, in London 1801, and at Covent Garden Nov. 12, 1824, with the 'overture and all the music.' In Italian produced at Drury Lane June 20, 1872, as Le due Gioruate, for one night only. Beethoven thought the book of this opera the best in existence.

[ G. ]

DEVELOPMENT. A word used in two somewhat different senses; on the one hand of a whole movement, in a sense analogous to its use with reference to an organism; and on the other of a subject or phrase, with reference to the manner in which its conspicuous features of rhythm or melody are employed by reiteration, variation, or any other devices which the genius or ingenuity of the composer suggests, with the object of showing the various elements of interest it contains.

The term is very apt and legitimate when used in the above senses, which are in reality no more than the converse of one another; for the development of a movement is rightly the development of the ideas contained in its subjects; otherwise in instrumental music neither purpose nor unity of design could be perceived. It must however be borne in mind that the mere statement of a transformed version of a subject is not development. A thing is not necessarily developed when it is merely changed, but it is so generally when the progressive steps between the original and its final condition can be clearly followed.

The most perfect types of development are to be found in Beethoven's works, with whom not seldom the greater part of a movement is the constant unfolding and opening out of all the latent possibilities of some simple rhythmic figure. It is impossible to give examples, owing to the space they would require; but reference may be made to the first movement of the Symphony in C minor; the Scherzo of the 9th Symphony; the Allegro con brio of the Sonata in C minor, opus 111; the last movement of the Sonata in F, opus 10, no. 2 ; and the last movement of the Sonata in A, opus 101.

DEVIL'S OPERA, THE, in two acts, words by G. Macfarren, music by G. A. Macfarren; produced at the English Opera House Aug. 13, 1838.

DEVIN DU VILLAGE. LE (the village sorcerer), an Interméde, in one act; words and music by J. J. Rousseau; played for the first