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complete, and a supplement to Fétis is on the point of publication [App. p.613 "the supplement was published in 1878 by M. Arthur Pougin, in 2 vols"].

Whilst the French authors were writing their dictionaries, either on Rousseau's plan or were following the lead of Choron, Fétis, and d'Ortigue, by enlarging their sphere beyond that of musical terminology, the tendency in Germany was to include in dictionaries not only all that concerns the technical part of music, but the biography of musicians, and the philosophy, literature, and bibliography of the art. Gustav Schilling therefore justly entitles his dictionary 'Encyclopädie der gesammten musikalischen Wissenschaften, oder universal Lexicon der Tonkunst' (Stuttgart 1835–38, 7 vols. 8vo.). In this work biography holds an important place, but the other departments are treated with equal skill and research, so that the whole forms a precious depository of information, and is a notable advance on all previous works of the kind in other countries. Gassner, in his 'Universal Lexicon der Tonkunst' (Stuttgart 1849, 1 vol.), and Bernsdorf, in his 'Neues universal Lexicon der Tonkunst,' in continuation of Schladebach (Dresden and Offenbach 1856–61, 3 vols.), have obviously made considerable use of Schilling, and both works have a well-merited reputation. Koch's 'Lexicon' has been re-edited by Dommer (Heidelberg 1865), and Oscar Paul has published a useful 'Handlexicon der Tonkunst' (Leipsic 1873), in which condensation is carried to its utmost limit. But of all the German works which have followed Schilling the most important and deserving of mention is the Musikalisches Conversations- Lexicon, edited by Mendel, and since his unfortunate death by Reissmann (Berlin, 1870 etc.), of which 7 vols. have already appeared, carrying the work down to 'Paisiello.' [App. p.613 "has been completed in 11 vols., together with a supplementary volume edited by Dr. August Reissman, in 1883."] There is a want of proportion in some of the articles, a cumbrousness of style and an occasional appearance of bias, but the staff of writers is unequalled for eminence and number, and there is much in their essays which has never been collected before and which is highly valuable. In dictionaries however one work can never supersede another, and perfect information is only to be got by consulting all.

Space compels us to confine ourselves to a mere mention of such works as the Swedish dictionary of Envalson (Stockholm 1802); the illustrated dictionary of Soullier (Paris 1855); and the Spanish dictionaries of Melcior (Lerida 1859) and Parada (Madrid 1868) [App. p.613 "Mention should also be made of Dr. Hugo Riemann's handy 'Musik-Lexicon' published in Leipzig in 1882 (second edition, 1887)"]. Besides musical lexicons properly so called there are a certain number of Encyclopedias and Dictionaries of the Fine Arts, which contain important articles on music and musical terms. Amongst these may be cited the 'Encyclopédie' of Diderot and D'Alembert (Paris 1751–80, 35 vols.); the 'Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste' (Leipsic 1773), by Sulzer, of which Millin has made great use in his 'Dictionnaire des Beaux Arts' (Paris 1806); the 'Allgemeine Encyclopadie der Wissenschaften und Kunste' (Leipsic 1818–47), by Ersch and Gruber, an enormous collection, containing many remarkable articles on music; and the 'Dictionnaire de l'Académie des Beaux Arts,' begun in 1858, of which the 3rd vol. (1869–75) concludes with the words 'Chœur,' 'Choral,' and 'Chorégique.' It contains new and striking articles by Halévy, Henri Réber, and other eminent musicians.

In England, among cyclopædias, the earliest place is held by that of Rees (1819), the musical articles in which were written by the eminent Dr. Burney. In the new issue of the Encyclopædia Britannica (begun 1875) the musical articles—restricted in number—are written by Dr. Franz Hueffer [App. p.613 "more recently by Mr. W. S. Rockstro"]. Chambers's Cyclopædia (1741–53 or 1778–91) on a smaller, and Brande's Dictionary (1842; 3rd ed. 1853) on a still smaller scale, contain good articles on musical topics, the former including the leading biographies. The Dictionaries are few and unimportant:—Grassineau (1740), Busby (1786), Jousse (1829), Wilson, or Hamilton's and Hiles's Dictionaries of Musical Terms—each a small 8vo. volume—are specimens of the manner in which this department has been too long filled in England. A great advance has been recently made in the 'Dictionary of Musical Terms' edited by Dr. Stainer and Mr. W. A. Barrett (1 vol. 8vo., Novello 1876), though even that leaves something to be desired. As regards biography, the 'Dictionary of Musicians' (2 vols. 8vo., 1822 and 27), though good in intention, is imperfectly carried out.

An excellent work for its date and its intention is the 'Complete Encyclopædia of Music' by John W. Moore (Boston, U.S.A., 1852), a large 8vo. volume of 1000 pages, constructed on a popular basis, and which would be more valuable if it were corrected and modified to date.

[ G. C. ]

DIESIS, from the Greek δίεσισ which means division, and was the name given to quarter tones in their system. Aristotle takes it as the unit of musical tones, the last subdivision of intervals. In modern acoustics it means the interval which results from the two sounds which are arrived at by tuning up 3 perfect thirds and an octave, which is the same as the difference between a major or diatonic semitone, and a minor or chromatic semitone, the ratio of their vibrations being 125:128. It is commonly called the Enharmonic Diesis, enharmonic being the word which is applied to intervals less than a semitone.

Diése has been adopted by the French as their term for sharp.

DIEUPART, Charles, a native of France, who came to England in the latter part of the 17th century, was a fine performer on the violin and harpsichord. In 1707 he was associated with Clayton and Haym in introducing translations of Italian operas at Drury Lane Theatre. [Clayton.] After the discontinuance of those operas and the failure of their subsequent concert speculation, Dieupart devoted himself entirely to teaching the harpsichord, and for some time with considerable success, but towards the latter part of his life he acquired low habits, and frequented alehouses, where he entertained the company by his fine performance of Corelli's violin solos. He died in necessitous circum-